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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae | Echinochloa

7. Echinochloa crusgalli (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois, Ess. Agrostogr. 53. 1812.

稗 bai

Annual. Culms coarse, erect or geniculately ascending, 20–150 cm tall. Leaf blades linear, 5–40 × 0.2–1.2 cm, usually glabrous, smooth except for scabrous margins, apex acute. Inflorescence erect, lanceolate to ovate or pyramidal, 6–22 cm; racemes 2–10 cm, usually ascending, simple or the longest with inconspicuous branchlets near the base, rachis usually with tubercle-based setae, spikelets loosely to densely crowded. Spikelets green or purplish, ovate, 2.5–4 mm, spinulose along veins; lower glume ca. 1/3 as long as spikelet, acute; lower lemma sterile, herbaceous, acuminate or extended into an awn to 3 cm; upper lemma pale brownish at maturity, elliptic, 2–3 mm. Fl. and fr. summer and autumn. 2n = 36, 48, 54, 72.

Damp weedy places, streamsides, rice fields. Throughout China [warm-temperate and subtropical regions of the world].

Echinochloa crusgalli is a widespread, polymorphic weed with many intergrading variants. The following varieties may be recognized in China:

1 Racemes with some secondary branching   (2)
+ Racemes all simple   (3)
2 (1) Racemes soft; awn of lower lemma 5–15(–30) mm.   7a var. crusgalli
+ Racemes stiff; awn of lower lemma absent or less than 5 mm.   7b var. mitis
3 (1) Spikelets 3–4 mm, awnless.   7c var. zelayensis
+ Spikelets 2.5–3 mm, awnless or with awn less than 5 mm   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blades 2–5 mm broad; racemes erect, appressed to axis.   7d var. austrojaponensis
+ Leaf blades 4–10 mm broad; racemes ascending   (5)
5 (4) Spikelets green.   7e var. breviseta
+ Spikelets purplish.   7f var. praticola


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