1. Hemisteptia lyrata (Bunge) Fischer & C. A. Meyer, Index Sem. Hort. Petrop. 2: 38. 1836.
泥胡菜 ni hu cai
Cirsium lyratum Bunge, Enum. Pl. China Bor. 36. 1833; Aplotaxis australasica F. Mueller; A. bungei Candolle, nom. illeg. superfl.; A. carthamoides Candolle; A. multicaulis Candolle; Hemisteptia carthamoides (Candolle) Kuntze; Saussurea carthamoides (Candolle) Bentham; S. lyrata (Bunge) Franchet; Serratula carthamoides Buchanan-Hamilton ex Roxburgh (1832), not (Willdenow) Poiret (1805).
Herbs 20-150 cm tall, annual. Stems solitary or rarely several, erect, apically branched or rarely simple. Basal leaves usually withered at anthesis. Lower and middle stem leaves petiolate; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to narrowly obovate, 4-15 × 1.5-5 cm, lyrately pinnately divided, abaxially grayish white and ± tomentose, adaxially green and glabrous, margin dentate or entire; segments 1-6 pairs, narrowly obovate to narrowly ovate; terminal segment rhombic, triangular, or ovate, larger than lateral ones. Upper stem leaves sessile, narrowly ovate-elliptic to linear, gradually smaller upward on stem. Capitula many, in a lax corymbiform synflorescence or rarely solitary, long pedunculate. Involucre 1.5-3 cm in diam. Phyllaries in 4-10 rows, apex acuminate and purplish red; outer phyllaries triangular-ovate, 2-3 × 1-1.5 mm; middle phyllaries ovate-elliptic to elliptic, 3-7 × 1.3-1.5 mm; inner phyllaries elliptic to linear-elliptic, 7-13 × 1.5-1.8 mm. Receptacle bristles white, 2-4 mm. Corolla rose-purple, 1.2-1.4 cm, tube 1-1.1 cm, limb 2.5-3 mm, lobes 2-2.5 mm. Achene brown, 2.2-3 mm, glabrous. Pappus white; outer pappus row of 3-9 minute flat rectangular scales on abaxial side of achene, 0.2-0.5 mm, persistent; inner pappus row of plumose bristles, 1-1.3 cm, caducous. Fl. and fr. Mar-Aug. 2n = 36*.
Forests, forest margins, grasslands, wastelands, farmlands, riversides, roadsides; near sea level to 3300 m. Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [?Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; E Australia].
The earlier publication of the name "Hemistepta [sic!] lyrata" by Bunge in Ledebour (Dorpater Jahrb. Litt. 1: 221. 1833) was not valid because the generic name had not been previously validly published (Vienna Code, Art. 43.1); nor were the generic and specific names simultaneously validated there (Art. 42.1: "Reference to an earlier description is not acceptable in place of a descriptio generico-specifica").
"Saussurea affinis Spreng." and "S. stricta Spreng." (Candolle, Prodr. 6: 540. 1838) both belong here but were not validly published because they were merely cited as synonyms of Aplotaxis carthamoides and A. multicaulis, respectively (Vienna Code, Art. 34.1(c)).