1. Orchis militaris Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 941. 1753.
四裂红门兰 si lie hong men lan
Plants 20-45 cm tall. Tubers ovoid, 1-1.5 cm, fleshy, entire. Stem with 2 tubular sheaths at base, 3-5-leaved. Leaves abaxially pale green, adaxially green, not spotted, oblong-elliptic to elliptic, 8-18 × 2.5-5 cm, apex obtuse. Inflorescence 4-10 × 0.3-0.5 cm, densely 5-15-flowered; floral bracts green sometimes tinged purplish red, ovate, 2-3 mm, much shorter than ovary, apex acuminate. Flowers scented, medium-sized; ovary green, tinged with violet, oblong, slightly arching, 1-1.5 cm including pedicel, glabrous. Sepals pinkish white, veined rose-purple on inner surfaces; dorsal sepal erect, ovate-lanceolate, concave, 9-13 × 3-4 mm, 3-veined, apex acuminate; lateral sepals erect, obliquely ovate-lanceolate, 9-13 × 3.5-4.5 mm, 3-veined, apex acuminate. Petals erect, connivent with dorsal sepal and forming a hood, pale purple to pink, linear, slightly shorter and narrower than dorsal sepal, 1-veined, apex acuminate; lip whitish in center with fine purplish red papillate spots, 1-1.4 cm, spurred at base, 4-lobed, lobes purplish red; basal lobes often erect, linear-falcate, ca. 8 × 1 mm, apex obtuse; mid-lobe much larger than basal lobes, linear-oblong to obovate, ca. 2 mm wide, apex divergently 2-lobed, with an apiculus between 2 lobules; lobules oblong-obovate, to 4 mm; spur pendulous, curving slightly forward, white or pink, cylindric, 5-6 mm, much shorter than ovary, apex obtuse. Column obtuse; anther purplish; rostellum 3-lobed. Fl. May-Jun, fr. Jul-Aug. 2n = 42.
Limestone grasslands; ca. 600 m. N Xinjiang (Habahe) [Afghanistan, Mongolia, Russia; SW Asia, Europe].