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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Trapaceae | Trapa

2. Trapa natans Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 120. 1753.

欧菱 ou ling

Trapa acornis Nakano; T. amurensis Flerow; T. amurensis var. komarovii Skvortsov; T. arcuata S. H. Li & Y. L. Chang; T. bicornis Osbeck; T. bicornis var. acornis (Nakano) Z. T. Xiong; T. bicornis var. bispinosa (Roxburgh) Nakano; T. bi cornis var. cochinchinensis (Loureiro) Steenis; T. bicornis var. quadrispinosa (Roxburgh) Z. T. Xiong; T. bicornis var. taiwanensis (Nakai) Z. T. Xiong; T. bispinosa Roxburgh; T. bi spinosa var. iinumae Nakano; T. chinensis Loureiro; T. cochinchinensis Loureiro; T. dimorphocarpa Z. S. Diao; T. japonica Flerow; T. japonica var. jeholensis (Nakai) Kitagawa; T. japonica var. longicollum Z. T. Xiong; T. japonica var. magnicorona Z. T. Xiong; T. japonica var. tuberculifera (V. N. Vassiljev) Tzvelev; T. jeholensis Nakai; T. korshinskyi V. N. Vassiljev; T. litwinowii V. N. Vassiljev; T. litwinowii var. chi huensis S. F. Guan & Q. Lang; T. manshurica Flerow; T. manshurica var. bispinosa Flerow; T. manshurica f. komarovii (Skvortsov) S. H. Li & Y. L. Chang; T. natans var. amurensis (Flerow) Komarov; T. natans var. bicornis (Osbeck) Makino; T. natans var. bispinosa (Roxburgh) Makino; T. natans var. japonica Nakai; T. natans var. pumila Nakano ex Verdcourt; T. natans f. quadrispinosa (Roxburgh) Makino; T. natans var. quadrispinosa (Roxburgh) Makino; T. potaninii V. N. Vassiljev; T. pseudoincisa Nakai; T. pseudoincisa var. aspinosa Z. T. Xiong ["aspinfa"]; T. pseudoincisa var. complana Z. T. Xiong; T. pseudoincisa var. nanchangensis W. H. Wan; T. pseudo incisa var. potaninii (V. N. Vassiljev) Tzvelev; T. quadri spinosa Roxburgh; T. quadrispinosa var. yongxiuensis W. H. Wan; T. saissanica (Flerow) V. N. Vassiljev; T. sibirica Flerow; T. sibirica var. saissanica Flerow; T. sibirica var. ussuriens is Flerow; T. taiwanensis Nakai; T. transzchelii V. N. Vassiljev; T. tuberculifera V. N. Vassiljev.

Stem 2.5-6 mm in diam. Petiole (2-)5-18 cm, stout, ± swollen distally, pubescent; leaf blade glossy and dark green adaxially, greenish purple abaxially, often with colored spots between veins, deltoid-rhombic to oblate-rhombic, 4-6 × 4-8 cm, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base broadly cuneate, margin irregularly dentate distally. Petals white, 7-10 mm. Fruit turbinate to shortly rhombic, 1.8-3 × 2-4.5 × 1-2.8 cm, (0-)2-4-horned, crest a prominent bulge to a thin rib, crown tetragonal to rounded, or dome-shaped, rarely crownless, 1-8(-11) mm, beak conic or a tuft of hairs; horns horizontal, ascending, or recurved, flat-triangular or broadly conic, 2-3.5 cm, apex barbellate or cultivated without barbs. Fl. May-Oct, fr. Jul-Nov. 2n = 44*, 46*, 48*, 76*, 90*, ?96.

Slow-moving rivers, lakes, swamps, ponds, also widely cultivated in China; near sea level to 2700 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Russia, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, SW Asia (Iran), Europe; widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical Asia; naturalized in Australia and North America].

In FRPS (53(2): 7, 9. 2000), the names Trapa macropoda Miki, T. mammillifera Miki, and T. octotuberculata Miki, all of which are based on fossil types, were misapplied to plants of T. natans.


 

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