1. Actinoscirpus grossus (Linnaeus f.) Goetghebeur & D. A. Simpson, Kew Bull. 46: 171. 1991.
大藨草 da biao cao
Scirpus grossus Linnaeus f., Suppl. Pl. 104. 1782; Schoenoplectus grossus (Linnaeus f.) Palla.
Plants stoloniferous. Culms scattered, 1-2 m tall, 1-1.2 cm thick, acutely 3-angled, smooth, clothed at base with 1 or 2 spongy leaf sheaths which disintegrate into reticulate fibers. Leaves basal only (not cauline), shorter than culm; sheaths spongy; leaf blade 7-12 mm wide, margin scabrous. Involucral bracts 3 or 4, leaflike, basal 1-3 longer than inflorescence, margin apically scabrous. Inflorescence a terminal compound anthela, with over 10 rays and many spikelets; rays to 5 cm, scabrous. Spikelets solitary, rust-colored to dark brown, sessile or pedunculate, ovoid to ellipsoid, 4-5 × 2.5-3 mm, densely many flowered. Glumes elliptic to broadly ovate, ca. 2.5 mm, membranous, margin apically ciliolate, apex obtuse with a green costa excurrent into a mucro. Perianth bristles 6, longer than nutlet, retrorsely scabrous. Stamens 3; anthers linear; connective apex black, deltoid, very short. Style ± long; stigmas 3. Nutlet pale brownish yellow, obovoid to subellipsoid, ca. 1.5 mm, compressed 3-sided, apex beaked. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = ca. 88.
Moist places, shallow pools, swamps, paddy fields; below 100-900 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; N Australia, Pacific islands].