5. Dactylorhiza aristata (Fischer ex Lindley) Soó, Nom. Nov. Gen. Dactylorhiza. 5. 1962.
芒尖掌裂兰 mang jian zhang lie lan
Orchis aristata Fischer ex Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 262. 1835; Dactylorhiza aristata f. alba P. M. Brown; D. aristata var. kodiakensis Luer & G. M. Luer; D. aristata f. perbracteata (Lepage) Catling; D. aristata f. rosea P. M. Brown; O. aristata var. immaculata Makino; O. aristata var. maculata Makino; O. aristata var. perbracteata Lepage; O. beeringiana (Chamisso) Kudô; O. latifolia Linnaeus var. beeringiana Chamisso.
Plants robust, 10-35 cm tall. Tuber palmately 3- or 4-lobed. Stem erect, stout, with 2 or 3 tubular sheaths at base, 3-6-leaved. Leaves usually congested at base of stem, uniformly green or occasionally with small purple spots or speckles adaxially, ovate-elliptic to oblong-elliptic, 5-15 × 0.8-4 cm, apex obtuse to acute. Rachis 3-13 cm, densely many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, basal ones exceeding flowers, apex acuminate. Flowers white, pink, or magenta, medium-sized; ovary and pedicel 4-8 mm. Sepals white, pink, or magenta, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, apex long acuminate; dorsal sepal erect, 9-12 × 3-5 mm; lateral sepals erect or spreading forward, concave, oblique, 8-11 × 3-5 mm. Petals erect, forming a hood with dorsal sepal, white, pink, or magenta, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 6-8 × 2-3.5 mm, apex acuminate; lip white, pink, or magenta with deep purple spots usually forming 2 distinct arcs, suborbicular to obcordate, 8-12 × 8-12 mm, 3-lobed near apex; mid-lobe narrowly deltoid, 2.2-3.5 × 1-1.8 mm, apex acuminate; lateral lobes ovate, much broader than mid-lobe, apex rounded-obtuse; spur spreading backward to upcurved, cylindric, 6-9 mm, subequal in length to or slightly exceeding ovary, ca. 1.8 mm in diam., apex obtuse. Fl. Jun-Aug.
Grasslands. Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East); North America (Alaska)].
The present authors have seen no Chinese specimens of this species. The Chinese distribution is based on H. P. Wood (Orchid Digest 73: 52-55. 2009).