23. Capparis formosana Hemsley, Ann. Bot. (London). 9: 145. 1895.
台湾山柑 tai wan shan gan
Capparis kanehirae Hayata ex Kanehira; C. sikkimensis Kurz subsp. formosana (Hemsley) Jacobs.
Vines, woody, to 30 cm d.b.h. Twigs dark red to dark blackish brown, stout, glabrous, with or without stipular spines; new twigs densely very thin grayish pubescence of simple trichomes. Stipular spines stout, firm, recurved, to 5-6 mm, base to 7 mm wide. Petiole 1.5-2.5 cm, stout, glabrous; leaf blade oblong to sometimes ovate or obovate-oblong, 10-18 × 3.5-8.5 cm, thickly leathery, both surfaces glabrous, abaxially slightly pale colored, adaxially bright green and slightly shiny, midvein abaxially raised and adaxially impressed, secondary veins 6-8 on each side of midvein, reticulate veins obvious, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex obtuse, rounded, or sometimes acute. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, umbels, 3-8(-20)-flowered; peduncle to 10 cm. Flowers fragrant. Pedicel 3-4 cm, with extremely thin grayish pubescence. Sepals 0.7-2 cm; sepals of outer whorl nearly orbicular, extremely concave, thick, fleshy, outside with brownish pubescence, inside glabrous; sepals of inner whorl nearly petal-form, thinner, margin broad and thin, apically forming a short hood. Petals white, obovate, 1.2-2.7 × 0.5-0.8 cm, inside with trichomes. Stamens 30-120; filaments ca. 1.5 cm; anthers ca. 2.5 mm. Gynophore 3-3.5 cm; ovary ellipsoid, ca. 5 mm, glabrous; placentae 3 or 4; ovules many. Fruit deep purple, globose, ellipsoid, or ovoid, 4-5.5 cm in diam., surface smooth or sometimes irregularly verrucose; pericarp 5-7(-10) mm thick, woody; fruiting pedicel and gynophore roughly equal, both 6-8 cm, 5-11 mm in diam., woody. Seeds 12-15 per fruit, nearly ellipsoid, slightly flat, ca. 2 × 1.5 × 1.2 cm, smooth; seed coat ca. 1.5 mm thick. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Aug-Feb.
Dense montane forests; 700-1000(-2400?) m. S Guangdong, Hainan, S and SE Taiwan [Japan (Ryukyu Islands), N Vietnam].
This species is reported here for the first time from Vietnam (Ninh Binh Province, Vinh 87, F, NY), previously misidentified as Capparis fohaiensis.