4. Cicerbita azurea (Ledebour) Beauverd, Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève. 2: 123. 1910.
岩参 yan shen
Sonchus azureus Ledebour, Fl. Altaic. 4: 138. 1833; Cicerbita azurea var. glabra Sennikov; C. glabra (Sennikov) Tzvelev; Lactuca azurea (Ledebour) Danguy; Mulgedium azureum (Ledebour) Candolle.
Herbs 30-60 cm tall, perennial. Rhizomes horizontal to oblique. Stem solitary, erect, branched apically, ± with brownish glandular hairs or glabrous. Basal and lower stem leaves with petiole 4.5-5.5(-18) cm, narrowly winged or unwinged, base ± expanded and semiamplexicaul to clasping; leaf blade pinnatisect, abaxially sparsely villous but glabrescent, margin sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes 1 pair, elliptic-triangular to triangular; terminal lobe cordate, ovate, triangular-hastate, or rarely reniform, 2-8 × 1.5-6 cm, apex acuminate to rounded. Middle and upper stem leaves with winged petiole; leaf blade smaller, lateral lobes 1 pair or absent. Synflorescence racemiform to more rarely paniculiform, with few to many capitula. Capitula with usually 11-18 florets. Involucre cylindric, 1.1-1.3 × 0.4-0.6 mm. Phyllaries usually tinged deep violet, glandular hairy along midvein or glabrous; outer phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, longest 6-9 mm; inner phyllaries 8-10, abaxially sparsely villous but glabrescent. Florets deep blue. Achene pale brown, narrowly ellipsoid, 4-5 mm, weakly compressed, constricted for ca. 0.2 mm below pappus disk. Pappus double, outer hairs inconspicuous and ca. 0.1 mm, bristles 6-8 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct.
Forest margins, mountain slopes, open areas in forests, grasslands on flats; 600-2900 m. N Xinjiang [Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, SC Russia].