3. Geranium polyanthes Edgeworth & J. D. Hooker in J. D. Hooker, Fl. Brit. India. 1: 431. 1874.
多花老鹳草 duo hua lao guan cao
Perennials. Rootstock ± vertical, 4-10 mm in diam., not tuberculate, without thickened roots. Stem 7-64 cm tall, erect, not rooting at nodes, subglabrous or with a variable indumentum composed of 0.1-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, 0.8-2.2 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, and 0.2-1.3 mm patent glandular trichomes in different combinations. Stipules ovate, distinct. Leaves 1(or 2) alternate but opposite at inflorescence; petiole subglabrous or with a variable indumentum composed of 0.1-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, 0.4-1.9 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, and 0.5-1.2 mm patent glandular trichomes in different combinations; leaf blade 2.1-5.6 cm, palmately cleft, ratio of main sinus/middle segment length = 0.68-0.81, pilose with ± appressed nonglandular and glandular trichomes; segments 5-7, obtriangular, 3.8-8.9 mm wide at base, 3-9-lobed in distal half, ratio of second sinus/middle segment length = 0.12-0.23. Cymules in dense umbel-like aggregates at apex of each branch, 2(or 3)-flowered; peduncle absent (to 7.3 cm). Pedicel 0.2-2.5 cm, with 1-2.3 mm patent nonglandular trichomes, 0.2-0.3 mm uncinate nonglandular trichomes, and usually 0.4-0.7 mm patent glandular trichomes; bracteoles lanceolate. Sepals 4.9-8.2 mm, mucro 0.4-1 mm, ratio of mucro/sepal length = 0.06-0.13, outside with 0.2-2.6 mm ± patent nonglandular trichomes and 0.4-1.1 mm patent glandular trichomes, inside glabrous. Petals pinkish, (0.8-)1-1.4 cm, erect to patent, outside glabrous, inside basally with trichomes, margin basally ciliate, apex rounded or retuse. Staminal filaments white, lanceolate, adaxially pilose and proximal half ciliate, trichomes 0.3-0.7 mm; anthers yellow, 0.6-1.1 mm. Nectaries 5, hemispheric, glabrous. Stigma pinkish. Fruit 1.3-2.1 cm, erect when immature; mericarps reticulate, without a basal callus, with ± appressed 0.1-0.2 mm nonglandular trichomes; rostrum 0.9-1.4 cm, without a narrowed apex or with a 0.5-1 mm narrowed apex; stigmatic remains 0.7-1.7 mm. Seeds 1.9-2.6 mm. Fl. Jul-Aug, fr. Aug-Oct.
Forests, scrub, meadows; 2900-4000 m. Sichuan (Kangding), SE Xizang, NW Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, Nepal].
This species is well characterized by its 2(or 3)-flowered cymules in dense umbel-like aggregates at the apex of each branch and its short or absent peduncles. Geranium carolinianum is an annual with similar inflorescences but with smooth mericarps. Rootstock of G. polyanthes is usually vertical, sometimes knotty (probably when growing in difficult soils), but not tuberose. This species can produce cleistogamic flowers of less size, which are not considered in the description.