68. Ilex dipyrena Wallich in Roxburgh, Fl. Ind. 1: 473. 1820.
双核枸骨 shuang he gou gu
Ilex bioritsensis Hayata var. integra H. F. Comber; I. dipyrena var. connexiva W. W. Smith; I. dipyrena var. paucispinosa Loesener; I. monopyrena G. Watt ex Loesener.
Shrubs or trees, evergreen, 2-15(-25) m tall; bark gray-black, slightly longitudinally fissured. Branchlets striate, puberulent or glabrescent; old branches gray-yellow, thick and strong, smooth or minutely fissured, lenticels obscure, leaf scars semicircular. Petiole 3-6 mm, abaxially rugose, adaxially sulcate and pubescent; leaf blade abaxially greenish, adaxially deep green, shiny, elliptic-oblong, elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, rarely ovate, 4-10 × 2-4 cm, thickly leathery, both surfaces glabrous, midvein impressed, puberulent or glabrescent adaxially, lateral veins 6-9 pairs, raised abaxially, impressed adaxially, base broadly cuneate to rounded, margin entire or subentire with 3-14 spines per side, apex shortly acuminate to acuminate, with a sharp spine. Inflorescences: 1-flowered cymes, fasciculate, axillary on second year’s branchlets; bracts ovate-lanceolate, ciliate; flowers greenish, 4-merous. Male inflorescences: pedicels 2-3 mm, sparsely puberulent or glabrescent; bracteoles basal, lanceolate, ca. 1.5 mm; calyx discoid, ca. 3 mm in diam., deeply lobed, lobes ovate-deltoid, sparsely ciliate, apex acute or obtuse; corolla rotate, ca. 7 mm in diam., petals ovate, ca. 3 mm, ciliate, basally slightly connate; stamens 4, longer than petals, anthers oblong-ovoid; rudimentary ovary ovoid, ca. 1.5 mm in diam., apex obtuse or truncate. Female inflorescences: pedicels 1-3 mm, sparsely puberulent or glabrescent; calyx and corolla as in male flowers; staminodes slightly shorter than petals, sterile anthers subcordate or sagittate; ovary ovoid, stigma discoid, lobed. Fruit red, globose, 7-9 mm in diam.; persistent calyx quadrangular; persistent stigma discoid, 2-4-lobed; pyrenes (1 or)2(-4), when 2 pyrenes: oblong-ellipsoidal or subglobose, 5-7 mm, ca. 5 mm in diam., abaxially palmately striate and sulcate, adaxially striate-sulcate; when 4 pyrenes: oblong, ca. 3.5 mm in diam.; endocarp woody. Fl. Apr-Jul, fr. Jun-Dec. 2n = 40.
Evergreen broad-leaved forests, mixed forests, shrubby areas, valleys, roadsides; 2000-3400 m. SW Hubei, SW Sichuan (Muli), SE Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, N India, N Myanmar, Nepal].