2. Ixeridium laevigatum (Blume) Pak & Kawano, Mem. Fac. Sci. Kyoto Univ., Ser. Biol. 15: 45. 1992.
褐冠小苦荬 he guan xiao ku mai
Prenanthes laevigata Blume, Bijdr. 886. 1826; Crepis laevigata (Blume) Zollinger; Ixeridium oldhamii (Maximowicz) Sennikov; Ixeris laevigata (Blume) Engler & Maximowicz; I. laevigata var. oldhamii (Maximowicz) Kitamura; I. oldhamii (Maximowicz) Kitamura; Lactuca laevigata (Blume) Candolle; L. luzonica S. Vidal; L. oldhamii Maximowicz; L. stenophylla Makino.
Herbs 10-90 cm tall, perennial, with short oblique ?rhizome and fibrous roots. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from above middle or less frequently from further below, distantly leafy. Basal leaves crowded, usually present at anthesis, elliptic, narrowly elliptic, or linear-elliptic, 5-32 × 0.3-3.5 cm, undivided or more rarely pinnatipartite, basally attenuate and sometimes with an unwinged petiole-like portion, margin denticulate, sinuate-dentate, or more rarely entire, apex rounded to acute and often mucronate; lateral lobes (if present) 2-5 pairs, semiorbicular, triangular-ovate, or lanceolate. Stem leaves broadly elliptic, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear-lanceolate, base attenuate, semiamplexicaul, undivided, margin entire to sinuate-dentate, apex acute. Synflorescence corymbiform, with some to many capitula. Capitula with 8-11 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric, (5-)6-7(-8) mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries ovate-lanceolate, longest to 1.5 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries 8, apex acute. Florets yellow. Anther tube and style greenish to blackish upon drying. Achene brown, subfusiform, 4-5 mm, apex attenuate into a slender 1-2 mm beak. Pappus straw-colored, 3-4 mm. Fl. and fr. Feb-Oct. 2n = 14*.
Forests, forest margins, densely grassy areas, riverbanks, cliffs, roadsides; near sea level to 2300 m. Fujian, Guangdong, ?Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, Indonesia, S Japan, Laos, New Guinea, Philippines, Vietnam].