13. Viola kosanensis Hayata, Icon. Pl. Formosan. 3: 28. 1913.
福建堇菜 fu jian jin cai
Viola fukienensis W. Becker; V. kiangsiensis W. Becker; V. nagamiana T. Hashimoto; V. shinchikuensis Yamamoto.
Herbs perennial, caulescent or acaulescent, 5-15 cm tall. Rhizome erect, yellow-brown, very long, to 12 cm, stout, 4-7 mm in diam., densely noded, with dense brown remains of stipules, often branched at apex, with numerous long, slender fibrous roots. Basal leaves numerous, fasciculate, rosulate; stipules free, brown, linear-lanceolate, margin fimbriate-serrate; petiole 1.5-4 cm, very narrowly winged in upper part; blade ovate or triangular-ovate, 1.3-3.5 × 1-3 cm, both surfaces glabrous to subglabrous or appressed puberulous, with dense brown glandular dots, veins conspicuously raised abaxially, base shallowly cordate or cuneate, margin serrulate, apex ± acute. Flowers deep purple to light purple or white, small, ca. 1 cm; pedicels linear, 2-7 cm, slender, soft, glabrous or puberulous, 2-bracteolate above middle; bracteoles linear-subulate, 3-3.5 mm, margin fimbriate at base. Sepals linear-lanceolate, 5-6 mm, 3-veined, margin entire, apex ± acute, basal auricles ca. 1.5 mm, apex rounded or inconspicuously crenate. Petals oblong-obovate, lateral ones bearded, anterior one shorter; spur 2-3 mm. Ovary glabrous; styles slightly geniculate at base; stigmas raised, shortly beaked in front, slightly margined abaxially and adaxially. Capsule oblong, 6-7 mm, glabrous, with brown dots. Seeds brown when mature, ovoid-globose, ca. 2 mm, ca. 1 mm in diam. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Aug-Oct.
● Forest margins on mountains, shaded and moist places along riversides; 200-2700 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, NE Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, S Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, NW Yunnan.