48. Carex gmelinii Hooker & Arnott, Bot. Beechey Voy. 118. 1832.
长芒薹草 chang mang tai cao
Rhizome obliquely ascending, stoloniferous. Culms densely tufted, 20-60 cm tall, scabrous above, clothed at base with dark purple bladeless sheaths disintegrating into reticulate fibers. Leaves shorter than culm, blades linear or broadly linear, 3-7 mm wide, slightly firm. Involucral bracts leafy, nearly sheathless. Spikes 3-8, terminal 3 approximate, sessile, lower ones distant and with a peduncle, lowest peduncle 2-3 cm, ± pendent or erect; terminal spike gynaecandrous, rarely male, oblong, 2-3 cm; lateral spikes female, oblong, 1.5-3 cm. Female glumes dark purple-red or black-purple, ovate, margins narrowly white hyaline, 1-3-veined costa forming a scabrous long awn at apex. Utricles yellowish green, becoming pale brown, longer than glume, ovate or subobovate, trigonous, 4-5 mm, membranous, densely finely granular, 6-8-veined, base stipitate, apex abruptly contracted into a short ferruginous scarcely emarginate or entire beak. Nutlets loosely enveloped, obovate, trigonous, slightly compressed; style base not thickened; stigmas 3.
Grasslands, seashores. Jilin [Japan, Korea, Russia (Far East, E Siberia); North America].