21. Paphiopedilum villosum (Lindley) Stein, Orchideenbuch. 490. 1892.
紫毛兜兰 zi mao dou lan
Plants epiphytic or sometimes lithophytic. Leaves 4-7, distichous; blade abaxially green and with purple speckles toward base, adaxially uniformly dark green, linear-oblong or lorate, 20-32(-40) × 2.2-3.5(-4) cm, leathery, acute to obtuse and bilobulate at apex. Scape suberect to arching, terminating in a solitary flower; peduncle green, 10-18(-24) cm, with purple or rarely whitish hairs; floral bract green, elliptic, conduplicate, 4-5 × 2-3 cm, abaxially purple spotted and hairy toward base; pedicel and ovary 4-5 cm, with purple or rarely whitish hairs. Flower 8-13 cm in diam.; dorsal sepal greenish or yellowish to whitish, centrally blackish maroon spotted or with a deep maroon or blackish maroon area; synsepal greenish to yellowish white; petals with a deep maroon central stripe, on upper side of central stripe pale maroon with deep maroon veins, on lower side paler in color; lip pale maroon obscurely with darker veins; staminode yellowish, flushed with pale maroon, centrally with a yellow or green umbo. Dorsal sepal broadly elliptic to obovate, 4-6.5 × 2.2-4.5 cm, abaxially ± minutely hairy throughout and with rather long hairs on midvein and toward base and apex, ciliate, recurved on basal margin, apex obtuse; synsepal elliptic-ovate to narrowly ovate, usually 4-5 × 1.7-2.8 cm. Petals spatulate-obovate, 5-6.5 × 2.2-4.5 cm, adaxially purple villous at base, ciliate, obtuse to retuse at apex; lip helmet-shaped, 5-6.5 cm; pouch 2.5-4 × 2.5-3.5 cm. Staminode obcordate-obovate, 10-15 × 8-11 mm, adaxially with bubblelike papillae and a central umbo, subtruncate at apex.
Tree trunks or branches in open forests, sunny cliffs, crevices of rocks, rocky places; 1100-1800(-2000) m. Yunnan [NE India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam].
Paphiopedilum ×sinovillosum Z. J. Liu & S. C. Chen (J. S. China Agric. Univ. 25: 123. 2004), a natural hybrid between P. villosum and P. henryanum, was described recently from Malipo of SE Yunnan.