1. Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal, Mém. Mus. Hist. Nat. 5: 50. 1819.
胶菀 jiao wan
Donia squarrosa Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 2: 559. 1813; Grindelia aphanactis Rydberg; G. nuda Alph. Wood; G. serrulata Rydberg.
Herbs biennial, perennial, or subshrubs, [10-]40-55[-100] cm tall. Stems erect, glabrous, resinous. Leaves: cauline sessile, oval, ovate, [obovate or oblong to spatulate, oblanceolate, lanceolate, or linear], 3.1-4.2 × 1.3-1.6 cm, glabrous, strongly gland-dotted, base ± clasping, margin usually crenate to serrate (teeth resin-tipped) [rarely entire], apex [obtuse to] acute. Capitula in corymbiform synflorescences, rarely solitary, 0.9-1.5 cm. Involucres broadly urceolate to hemispheric or globose, [8-20 mm in diam.]; phyllaries 5- or 6(-10)-seriate, reflexed to spreading or appressed, filiform or linear to lanceolate-linear, 4-7 mm, resinous, apex usually looped or hooked, subulate. Ray florets [absent or] (12-)24-36(-40), lamina elliptic, 7[-14] mm; disk florets 3-4 mm, limb funnelform, lobes ca. 1 mm. Achenes stramineous [or whitish, brown, or gray], [1.5-]2.8-3[-4.5] mm, faces smooth, striate or ± furrowed. Pappus of 2-4(-8) deciduous, straight or contorted to curled scales or awns [2.5-]4[-5.5] mm, shorter than disk corollas. Fl. [Jul-]Aug-Sep[-Oct].
100-200 m or more. Liaoning [native to W North America].
The specimens were not seen by us; the description is based on Fan et al. (Pl. Diversity Resources 33: 171-173. 2011) and Strother and Wetter (Fl. North America 20: 424-436. 2006).