5. Lolium rigidum Gaudin, Agrost. Helv. 1: 334. 1811.
硬直黑麦草 ying zhi hei mai cao
Annual. Culms tufted, erect or geniculate at base, 20–80 cm tall, 2–4-noded, smooth or scabrid below inflorescence. Leaf blades 5–20 cm × 3–6 mm, adaxial surface and margins smooth or scabrid, abaxial surface smooth; auricles up to 3 mm or absent; ligule 0.5–2.5 mm, rounded or truncate. Raceme stiff, straight or curved, 5–20 cm; rachis slender to fairly stout, smooth or scabrid, 1–3 mm thick, spikelets appressed to partly sunken, overlapping by half their length or up to their own length apart. Spikelets 1–2 cm, florets 5–10; glume lanceolate to oblong, as long as spikelet, 5–7(–9)-veined; lemmas oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 5–8 mm, 3–5-veined, scabrid, apex obtuse or erose; awn absent or 3(–8) mm on upper fertile florets only. Caryopsis length 3 times width or more.
Fields; 200–1800 m. Gansu (Tianshui), Henan [Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkmenistan; N Africa, SW Asia, Europe].
This taxon comprises a polymorphic species complex. It is a good fodder grass, introduced in temperate parts of the world.