1. Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Swartz) Schultz Bipontinus, Bot. Zeitung (Berlin). 24: 165. 1866.
离药金腰箭 li yao jin yao jian
Melampodium ruderale Swartz, Fl. Ind. Occid. 3: 1372. 1806, nom. cons.; Eleutheranthera ovata Poiteau; Gymnopsis microcephala Gardner; Kegelia ruderalis (Swartz) Schultz Bipontinus; Verbesina foliacea Sprengel; Wedelia discoidea Lessing.
Herbs, erect, to 30 cm. Stems glabrate to pilose. Petiole 1-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 3(-8) cm, 3-veined from near base, both surfaces pubescent and glandular, base obtuse, acute, or acuminate, margin entire or crenulate-dentate, apex acute or acuminate. Synflorescence terminal, of 2-5 capitula; peduncles slender, pilose, usually longer than capitulum. Capitula discoid, 4-6 mm; phyllaries 2-seriate, outer slightly imbricate, ovate, abaxially pubescent toward base, margin ciliate, apex acuminate or acute, inner paleaceous and involute around florets. Florets 2-6, ca. 2.5 mm; anthers black; style branches lanceolate, pubescent abaxially. Achenes brown, ca. 3 mm, 3-angled, body tuberculate, sparsely setuliferous; pappus an apical peg.
Recently naturalized in Taiwan [widespread in Central and South America but also found in W Africa and Australia].
The occurrence of this species in Taiwan was first reported by Sheng Z. Yang and G. P. Hsieh (Taiwania 51: 46-49. 2006).