4. Gnaphalium uliginosum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 856. 1753.
湿生鼠麴草 shi sheng shu qu cao
Filaginella uliginosa (Linnaeus) Opiz; Gnaphalium baicalense Kirpicznikov & Kuprianova; G. kasachstanicum Kirpicznikov & Kuprianova; G. mandshuricum Kirpicznikov & Kuprianova; G. thomsonii J. D. Hooker; G. tranzschelii Kirpicznikov.
Herbs, annual. Stems erect, 12-35 cm tall, usually branched from bases, sometimes simple, densely to loosely white lanate. Leaves radical and cauline, white lanate; radical and lower cauline leaves withering before anthesis; median cauline leaves numerous, linear or oblanceolate, 2-5 cm × 1.5-3(-5) mm, base attenuate, sessile, apex obtuse. Capitula glomerate in numerous clusters in axils and apex of branches, overtopped by subtending leaves. Involucre subglobose, 2-4 mm in diam., lanate at base; phyllaries brownish or green, often paler at tip; outer phyllaries obtuse. Marginal florets female; corolla filiform, ca. 1.5 mm. Disk florets ca. 1.5 mm. Achenes oblong, 0.5-0.7 mm, papillate or smooth. Pappus of distinct, capillary bristles, white, falling separately. Fl. Jul-Oct. 2n = 14, 56.
Marshes, riversides, moist grasslands, saline soils, roadsides, Larix forests. N Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Xinjiang, Xizang [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia; Europe, North America].
According to Fl. Pakistan (210: 118. 2003), Gnaphalium thomsonii is distributed in China. After comparing the description with G. uliginosum, it seems these two names represent the same species. The Russian botanist Kirpicznikov recognized many names that are closely related to G. uliginosum. Some of them are combined herein.