23. Viola epipsiloides A. Löve & D. Löve, Bot. Not. 128: 516. 1976.
溪堇菜 xi jin cai
Viola repens Turczaninow ex Trautvetter & C. A. Meyer in Middendorff, Reise Sibir. 1(2,3) [Fl. Ochot.]: 18. 1856, not Schweinitz (1822).
Herbs perennial, acaulescent, 5-20 cm tall. Rhizome creeping, long and white, with remains of brown stipules. Leaves basal, usually 2, sometimes 3; stipules free, white, ovate-lanceolate, ca. 8 mm, membranous, margin entire or sometimes 2- or 3-denticulate, apex acuminate; petiole 2-5 cm at anthesis, to 10 cm in fruit, very narrowly winged or wingless; leaf blade broadly ovate, orbicular, or reniform, 1.5-2.5 × 2-3 cm, abaxially ± puberulous, later glabrescent or sparsely puberulous only along veins, adaxially glabrous, base deeply cordate, margin shallowly crenate, apex acute or slightly obtuse. Flowers purple or purplish; pedicels not or slightly exceeding leaves, robust, with 2 linear bracteoles in upper part. Sepals ovate-lanceolate, ca. 4 mm, margin narrowly membranous, basal auricles short, apex truncate. Petals oblong-obovate, lateral ones sparsely bearded, anterior one purple-striate, 1.5-1.8 cm (spur included); spur short, ca. 3 mm, robust, horizontally straight or slightly curved upward; spur of 2 anterior stamens shorter than anthers, ca. 3 mm. Ovary glabrous; styles slightly geniculate at base, gradually thickened upward; stigmas thickly margined on lateral sides and at apex, very shortly beaked in front, with a broad stigma hole at tip of beak. Capsule 5-10 mm, ellipsoid, glabrous, apex acuminate. Fl. May, fr. Jun. 2n = 24.
Needle-leaved forests, in moist and boggy places, usually along streams. 400-1300 m. Heilongjiang, Jilin, Nei Mongol, N Xinjiang [Japan, Korea, Russia; Europe, North America].
In FRPS (51: 38. 1991), the name Viola epipsila Ledebour was misapplied to this species.