61. Euphorbia macrorrhiza C. A. Meyer ex Ledebour, Icon. Pl. 2: 26. 1830.
粗根大戟 cu gen da ji
Herbs, perennial, 40-60 cm tall. Rootstock cylindric, vertical or obliquely descending, 20-30 × 2-3(-5) cm thick, apically branched. Stems clustered, 4-7 mm thick, upper parts sometimes with many lateral branches [or upper parts undivided], tomentose toward apex; sterile branches absent. Leaves alternate, larger toward stem apex; stipules absent; petiole absent; leaf blade oblong, 2-5 × 0.5-1 cm, base attenuate, margin minutely serrulate (use hand lens!), apex subrounded; lateral veins inconspicuous. Inflorescence overall cylindric, an ill-defined terminal pseudumbel, often plus many small 3-rayed pseudumbels from upper axils; primary involucral leaves 4(or 5), ovate, ca. 1.5 × 0.8-1.2 cm, primary rays 4 or 5, usually 3-5 cm; cyathophylls 2 or 3, rather variable, similar to involucral leaves to much narrower, ca. 9 × 5-8 mm, base cuneate to subtruncate, margin entire or very minutely serrulate, apex acute. Cyathium stipe 3-5 mm, slender; involucre campanulate, ca. 4 × 3-4 mm, lobes rounded; glands 4, pale brown, rounded. Male flowers many, slightly exserted from involucre. Female flower: ovary pedicel up to 5 mm, exserted from cup; ovary densely compressed spinescent-tuberose, glabrous; styles connate for ca. 1/4 length, caducous; style arms simple, swollen, bifid. Capsule globose, ca. 5 × 5 mm, longitudinal furrows almost absent, tuberculate or softly spiny, glabrous. Seeds compressed globose, ca. 2.5 × 2 mm, yellow-brown or brown, adaxially white striate; caruncle present, subsessile. Fl. and fr. May-Jul.
Scrub, meadows on stony mountain slopes; 1100-1300 m. Xinjiang (Altay Shan) [Kazakhstan, Russia (W Siberia)].