1. Microstachys chamaelea (Linnaeus) Müller Argoviensis, Linnaea. 32: 95. 1863.
地杨桃 di yang tao
Tragia chamaelea Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 981. 1753; Elachocroton asperococcus F. Mueller; Sebastiania chamaelea (Linnaeus) Müller Argoviensis; S. chamaelea var. asperococca (F. Mueller) Pax & K. Hoffmann.
Perennial herbs to many-stemmed subshrubs, 20-60 cm tall; main root long, to 5 mm thick; lateral roots slender; stem ± woody at base, branching dichotomous, slightly angular, glabrous or pubescent when young. Stipules persistent, ovate, ca. 1 mm, ciliate, apex acuminate; petiole ca. 2 mm, usually pubescent; leaf blade linear or linear-lanceolate, 20-55 × 2-10 mm, thickly papery, abaxially pubescent, base slightly attenuate, usually with paired concave glands, margins densely serrulate, apex obtuse; midrib prominent on both surfaces, lateral veins 15-30 pairs, obscure. Inflorescence 5-12 mm, lower part with 1 or 2 female flowers, upper part with many spirally arranged male flowers. Male flowers: bracts ovate, ca. 0.5 mm, apex acuminate, mostly covered by a pair of large spatulate glands; each bract 1- or 2-flowered; sepals ovate, ca. 0.5 mm, margins ciliate-serrulate; stamens with filaments much shorter than anthers. Female flowers: bracts lanceolate, ca. 1 mm; sepals slightly larger than in male, broadly ovate, margins fimbriate, sometimes with 2 glands at base inside; ovary triangular-globose, glabrous, with 6 rows of spines; stigmas free. Capsules triangular-globose, 3.5-4.5 mm, lobes softly spiny, spines reddish. Seeds subterete, smooth, 2.5-2.75 mm. Fl. and fr. Mar-Nov. n = 14.
Beaches, dry fields, roadsides, along rivers, disturbed areas; near sea level to 300 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan [Brunei, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, N Australia, Pacific islands (Solomon Islands)].