1. Psydrax dicocca Gaertner, Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 125. 1788.
假鱼骨木 jia yu gu mu
Shrubs to trees, to 15 m tall; branches compressed or quadrangular becoming terete, glabrous. Petiole 6-15 mm, glabrous; leaf blade drying leathery, shiny on both surfaces, dark green adaxially, and pale brown abaxially, ovate, elliptic, obovate, ovate-elliptic, or ovate-lanceolate, 4-10 × 1.5-4 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, base cuneate to obtuse, margins often crisped, apex shortly to long acuminate, acute, or obtuse; secondary veins 3-5 pairs, in abaxial axils sometimes with small foveolate domatia; stipules 3-5 mm, glabrous, acute to shortly aristate. Inflorescences 2-3.5 cm, cymose, umbelliform, or fasciculate, puberulent; peduncle 3-8 mm; bracts reduced; pedicels 3-8 mm. Calyx glabrous; ovary portion obconic to cupuliform, 1-1.2 mm; limb ca. 0.5 mm, truncate or usually shallowly 5-dentate. Corolla greenish white or pale yellow, funnelform, outside glabrous; tube ca. 3 mm, tomentose in throat; lobes 5, triangular to ligulate, 2.5-3 mm, acute. Stigma ca. 1 mm. Drupes obovoid to ellipsoid or subglobose, often weakly dicoccous and/or somewhat flattened, 8-10 × 6-8 mm, glabrous; pyrenes rugose. Fl. Jan-Aug, fr. Jun-Nov.
Sparse forests or thickets at low to middle elevations, broad-leaved forests; 100-600 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Xizang, Yunnan [India, Indochina, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand; Australia].
The filaments are bent at ca. 180° at anthesis, so the anthers are fully reflexed and held parallel to the corolla tube but upside-down. W. C. Ko (in FRPS 71(2): 11. 1999, as Canthium dicoccum) described the corolla lobes as slightly shorter than the tube, but on several specimens studied these structures appear to be essentially equal in length. The fruit color at maturity seems not to have been noted by any authors or collectors.
The varieties recognized by W. C. Ko (loc. cit.: 11-13) are treated here for reference. In addition to the characters given in the key below, W. C. Ko distinguished Canthium dicoccum var. dicoccum by its stigmas entire to bilobed and C. dicoccum var. obovatifolium by its stigmas entire or often bifid or emarginate; however, the stigmas of all of these plants are held together and appear entire when young, then spread and become shallowly to markedly bifid at anthesis. Thus, the stigma distinctions may be developmental rather than population-level differences.