22. Melanoseris macrorhiza (Royle) N. Kilian, Fl. China. 20-21: 224. 2011.
头嘴菊 tou zui ju
Basionym: Mulgedium macrorhizum Royle, Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts. 251, t. 61, f. 1. 1835; Cephalorrhynchus albiflorus C. Shih; C. macrorhizus (Royle) Tuisl; C. saxatilis (Edgeworth) C. Shih; Cicerbita duthieana Beauverd; C. laevigata (Candolle) Beauverd; C. macrorhiza (Royle) Beauverd; C. macrorhiza var. saxatilis (Edgeworth) Beauverd; Lactuca hoffmeisteri Klotzsch; L. laevigata (Blume) Candolle var. saxatilis (Edgeworth) C. B. Clarke; L. macrorhiza (Royle) J. D. Hooker; Melanoseris saxatilis Edgeworth; Mulgedium laevigatum Candolle.
Herbs 20-50 cm tall, perennial. Taproot slenderly turniplike. Stems solitary or few, slender, ascending-erect to erect, branched from base or higher up, glabrous [or purplish brown pilose], leafy. Lower and middle stem leaves with petiole of lower ones not basally expanded and middle ones expanded and auriculate; leaf blade elliptic to spatulate, 6-14.5[-20] × 1-4.5 cm, lyrately pinnatifid to lyrately pinnatisect, rachis glabrous [or ± hispid with purplish brown hairs], margin entire; lateral lobes 2-4(-6) pairs, orbicular to elliptic, apex obtuse to rounded; terminal lobe largest, ovate-cordate, reniform, or elliptic, apex rounded to acute. Upper stem leaves similar to middle stem leaves but smaller; uppermost leaves lanceolate to broadly linear, undivided. Synflorescence loosely to paniculately corymbiform, with usually to 8-10 capitula and slender branches. Capitula with usually 10-15 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric to narrowly campanulate, (1-)1.2-1.5 × 0.4-0.5 cm. Phyllaries dark purplish green, glabrous; outer phyllaries triangular-ovate to lanceolate, longest ca. 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries 8. Florets purple, bluish purple, or rarely white. Achene 4-5 mm; body dark brown, narrowly ellipsoid, subcompressed, lateral ribs weakly broadened, apex attenuate into pale 1-3 mm stout beak. Pappus double, outer row of hairs 0.1-0.2 mm, bristles 6-7 mm. Fl. and fr. Jul-Oct. 2n = 16.
Mountain valleys, forests, thickets, grasslands; 2700-4000 m. Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan; SW Asia].
Whereas, according to the molecular phylogenetic analysis by N. Kilian et al. (in prep.), Cephalorrhynchus in the sense of its type (C. glandulosus Boissier) is a congener of Cicerbita, Melanoseris macrorhiza, previously treated as a member of Cephalorrhynchus (e.g., FRPS 80(1): 291. 1997), clearly belongs to Melanoseris. The white-flowered C. albiflorus is considered as a mere albino form of this species, as is known also occasionally in other species, and therefore treated as conspecific.