23. Melanoseris violifolia (Decaisne) N. Kilian, Fl. China. 20-21: 225. 2011.
西藏毛鳞菊 xi zang mao lin ju
Basionym: Prenanthes violifolia Decaisne in Jacquemont, Voy. Inde 4(Bot.): 100. 1843 ["violaefolia"]; Cicerbita sikkimensis (J. D. Hooker) C. Shih; C. violifolia (Decaisne) Beauverd; Lactuca hookeri (C. B. Clarke ex J. D. Hooker) Stebbins; L. sikkimensis (J. D. Hooker) Stebbins; P. alata J. D. Hooker & Thomson ex C. B. Clarke (1876), not (Hooker) D. Dietrich (1847); P. hookeri C. B. Clarke ex J. D. Hooker; P. sikkimensis J. D. Hooker.
Herbs 50-70 cm tall, perennial. Stem solitary, erect, branched apically, glabrous or sparsely strigose. Basal, lower, and middle stem leaves with petiole 5-6 cm, slender, ± broadly winged toward base; leaf blade undivided or lyrately pinnatisect, margin sparsely sinuate-dentate to subentire; lateral lobes if present 1 pair, sessile or with a 7-8 mm winged petiolule, lanceolate to elliptic, to 2 × 1 cm; terminal lobe broadly triangular to triangular-ovate, 3-8 × 3-7 cm, base hastate, cordate, sagittate, or truncate, apex obtuse to rounded. Upper stem leaves similar to middle stem leaves or with much shorter winged basally narrow to clasping petiole and smaller blade with a basally cuneate terminal lobe. Synflorescence paniculiform, with several to 30 capitula and slender branches. Capitula with 4-6 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre narrowly cylindric, 1.2-1.4 × ca. 0.3 cm. Phyllaries glabrous, apex acute to obtuse; outer phyllaries lanceolate, longest 4-5 mm; inner phyllaries 5(or 6). Florets bluish to reddish purple. Achene dark brown, narrowly ellipsoid, 6-7 mm, subcompressed, lateral ribs weakly broadened, apex truncate. Pappus double, outer hairs ca. 0.1 mm, bristles 6-8 mm. Fl. and fr. Jun-Aug.
Forests, forest margins, meadows; 3000-3700 m. Xizang [Bhutan, N India, Kashmir, Nepal].
Melanoseris violifolia, formerly treated as a member of Cicerbita (e.g., FRPS 80(1): 223. 1997, under C. sikkimensis) is, as inferred from morphology, closely related to M. macrorhiza and can therefore safely be considered as a member of Melanoseris too.