3. Ixeridium beauverdianum (H. Léveillé) Springate, Edinburgh J. Bot. 57: 402. 2000.
狭叶小苦荬 xia ye xiao ku mai
Lactuca beauverdiana H. Léveillé, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 8: 450. 1910; Ixeridium makinoanum (Kitamura) Pak & Kawano; Ixeris dentata (Thunberg) Nakai var. angustifolia (Makino) Nakai; I. makinoana (Kitamura) Kitamura; L. makinoana Kitamura; L. thunbergii Maximowicz var. angustifolia Makino.
Herbs 20-80 cm, perennial, with fibrous ?and shoot-bearing roots. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from above middle or less frequently from further below, glabrous, distantly leafy. Basal leaves crowded, usually present at anthesis, narrowly elliptic to linear-elliptic, 5-17 × 0.3-1 cm, undivided, basally attenuate, sometimes with an unwinged petiole-like portion, and semiamplexicaul, margin entire or with a few very slender linear teeth in lower third, apex acute and often mucronate. Stem leaves linear-lanceolate, smaller than basal leaves, base weakly narrowed and semiamplexicaul, otherwise similar to basal leaves. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculiform-corymbiform, with numerous capitula. Capitula with 5 or 6 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre narrowly cylindric, 4.5-6.5 mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries 3 or 4, ovate, less than ca. 1 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries 5. Florets (?pale) yellow, slightly exceeding involucre. Anther tube and style greenish to blackish upon drying. Achene pale brown, subfusiform, 3-3.5 mm, attenuate into a slender 0.5-1 mm beak. Pappus yellowish, 3-4 mm. Fl. and fr. May-Sep. 2n = 14.
Forests, forest margins, fields, wastelands, meadows; 300-3000 m. Chongqing, Fujian, ?Gansu, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, ?Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Bhutan, Japan, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam].
Ixeridium beauverdianum has long been confused in continental Asia with I. gracile (see there), while it was recognized as a separate species (under the names Ixeris makinoana and Ixeridium makinoanum) in Japan since the 1930s.