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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Cyperaceae

21. CAREX sect. CLANDESTINAE G. Don in Loudon, Hort. Brit. 376. 1830.

指状薹草组 zhi zhuang tai cao zu

Authors: Lun-Kai Dai, Tetsuo Koyama & Gordon C. Tucker

Carex sect. Digitatae (Fries) H. Christ; C. [unranked] Digitatae Fries.

Involucral bracts spathaceous, long sheathed, blade indistinct, often setaceous. Spikes 2-6; terminal spike male; lateral spikes female. Female glumes brownish or dark purple-brown, rarely greenish or yellow-green. Utricles obovate to obovate-oblong, densely pubescent, rarely glabrous, with a short beak or beakless. Stigmas 3.

Thirty-five species: temperate to tropical regions of Asia, Europe, and North America; 29 species (21 endemic) in China.

1 Culms 2-6 cm tall, concealed in lower part of leaves; leaves pubescent   (2)
+ Culms 10-40 cm tall, rarely up to 60 cm tall, exserted; leaves glabrous   (5)
2 (1) Leaves thin, hair-shaped; rhizome slender, creeping or obliquely ascending; culms loosely tufted; female spike loosely 1-3-flowered; female glumes lanceolate, ferruginous or pale ferruginous.   134 C. callitrichos
+ Leaves flat, 1-1.5 mm wide; rhizome short; culms densely tufted; female spike loosely 2-5(-7)-flowered; female glumes brown or purple-brown   (3)
3 (2) Female glumes ovate, ca. 4 mm, apex acute.   135 C. humilis
+ Female glumes oblong or obovate-lanceolate, ca. 3 mm, apex rounded, shortly awned, or aristate   (4)
4 (3) Culms roundly trigonous; male spike 4-6 mm; nutlets ovate, long stipitate.   136 C. minuticulmis
+ Culms subterete; male spike 7-7.5 mm; nutlets narrowly elliptic, shortly stipitate.   137 C. pseudohumilis
5 (1) Culms lateral; female spike 2-10- or more flowered   (6)
+ Culms centric; female spike 10- or more to many flowered, rarely 2-4-flowered   (8)
6 (5) Male spike lower than adjacent female spike, female spike 2-4-flowered, rachis tortuous.   138 C. quadriflora
+ Male spike taller than adjacent female spike, female spike 4-10- or more flowered, rachis strict   (7)
7 (6) Female spike 4-6-flowered; female glumes purplish brown; utricles with ± long and conic beak at apex; leaf blades 6-7 mm wide, sheaths dark brown and persistent.   139 C. lancifolia
+ Female spike 10- or more flowered; female glumes brown; utricles with short beak at apex; leaf blades 2-4 mm wide, sheaths purple-red or dark red and persistent.   140 C. erythrobasis
8 (5) Female glumes yellowish or greenish   (9)
+ Female glumes brownish, brown, or purple-brown   (11)
9 (8) Female glumes yellowish; nutlets long beaked at apex and exserted from orifice; male spike taller than or equaling adjacent female spike; leaf blades 0.5-1.5 mm wide, soft.   141 C. yuexiensis
+ Female glumes greenish; nutlets shortly beaked at apex, not exserted from orifice; male spike distinctly taller than adjacent female spike; leaf blades 2-4 mm wide, stiff   (10)
10 (9) Female spikes long pedunculate and exserted from involucral bract sheath; utricles nearly equaling glume, 2-veined laterally and thinly several veined; leaves shorter than culm, persistent sheaths dark brown.   142 C. tapinzensis
+ Female spikes shortly pedunculate, not or slightly exserted from involucral bract sheath; utricles shorter than glume, 2-veined laterally, not thinly veined; leaves nearly equaling culm, persistent sheaths yellow-brown or brown.   143 C. qingyangensis
11 (8) Rhizome long and creeping; culms loosely tufted   (12)
+ Rhizome short, obliquely ascending; culms densely tufted   (13)
12 (11) Utricles broadly obovate, with several convex veins, ± estipitate; spikes approximate, female spikes oblong, densely flowered or loosely few flowered at lower part; female glumes brown; leaf blades linear, not up to 0.5 mm wide.   144 C. pachyneura
+ Utricles obovate-oblong, 2-veined laterally and not thinly veined, shortly stipitate; spikes remote, female spikes linear, loosely flowered; female glumes purple-brown; leaf blades flat, 1-2.5 mm wide.   145 C. capilliculmis
13 (11) Leaves stiff; male spike 4-8 cm   (14)
+ Leaves soft; male spike not exceeding 3 cm   (17)
14 (13) Female spikes cylindric, 3.5-5 cm, 5-7 mm thick, peduncle slightly stiff, usually not exserted from involucral bract sheath; male glumes narrowly lanceolate, 8-10 mm, apex acuminate; female glumes narrowly oblong, 4-4.5 mm.   149 C. shuchengensis
+ Female spikes linear-cylindric, 2-4 cm, 3-4 mm thick, peduncle slender, long exserted from involucral bract sheath; male glumes oblong, 6-8 mm, apex rounded, acute, or truncate; female glumes oblong, 3-3.5 mm   (15)
15 (14) Male glumes 8-8.5 mm, apex truncate; female glumes green at middle, brown or brown-red laterally, rounded at apex.   148 C. macrosandra
+ Male glumes 6-7 mm, apex rounded or acute; female glumes brownish   (16)
16 (15) Leaves slightly shorter than culm, abaxial surface pale cinereous, densely papillose; female glumes rounded at apex; culms 40-100 cm tall.   146 C. sichouensis
+ Leaves longer than culm, slightly scabrous abaxially; female glumes acuminate at apex; culms 30-50 cm tall.   147 C. meihsienica
17 (13) Female spikes with rather short peduncle, usually not exserted or slightly exserted from involucral bract sheath, lowermost one slightly remote, but not basal   (18)
+ Female spike long stipitate, peduncle filiform, pendulous, long exserted from involucral bract sheath, lowermost one far from upper spike or subbasal   (22)
18 (17) Female spikes 2-4-flowered; utricles broadly ovoid or obovate-elliptic, 2-veined laterally and thinly several veined, apex abruptly contracted into a short or medium-sized beak   (19)
+ Female spikes densely many flowered; utricles obovate or obovate-oblong, 2-veined laterally, with or without thin veins, apex shortly beaked   (20)
19 (18) Rhizome elongate and creeping; spikes usually 2, male spike 1.2-1.3 cm, taller than adjacent female spike; utricles broadly ovoid, ca. 3.5 mm, apex abruptly contracted into a medium- sized beak.   161 C. scolopendriformis
+ Rhizome short; spikes usually 3 or 4, male spike ca. 0.5 cm, shorter than adjacent female spike; utricles obovate-elliptic or elliptic, 5-6 mm, apex abruptly contracted into a short beak.   162 C. infossa
20 (18) Leaves involute on margins, linear, shorter than culm; spikes approximate except lowermost one remote.   158 C. crebra
+ Leaves flat, longer than or equaling culm; spikes remote   (21)
21 (20) Involucral bract blades shortly leaflike, involucral bract sheaths green, narrowly membranous and white at sheath mouth; spike densely many flowered; rachis strict; leaves shorter than or equaling culm.   159 C. pediformis
+ Lower 1 or 2 involucral bract blades setaceous, remaining blades mucro-shaped, green abaxially, elsewhere brown, membranous and white at sheath mouth and margins; spike loosely or somewhat densely 5-10- or more flowered; rachis tortuous; leaves longer than culm after flowering.   160 C. lanceolata
22 (17) Female glumes only ca. 2 mm, brownish; utricles narrowly elliptic, 2-2.5 mm; male spike sometimes with 1-3 female flowers at base, female spike sometimes with a few male flowers at apex or 1-3-branched at base; persistent leaf sheaths brownish.   150 C. shaanxiensis
+ Female glumes longer than 3 mm, usually purple-brown or dark purple-brown, sometimes brown, dark brown, or brownish; utricles oblong or obovate-oblong, 3-5 mm; male spike without female flowers, female spike without male flowers; persistent leaf sheaths dark brown   (23)
23 (22) Female glumes 3-3.5 mm, without white hyaline margins; utricles 3-3.2 mm.   151 C. laeta
+ Female glumes 3-5 mm, with broad white hyaline margins; utricles 3-5 mm   (24)
24 (23) Utricles ca. 3 mm, nearly beakless at apex; style thickened, ovoid, all exserted from utricle; female glumes purple-brown, ca. 3 mm.   152 C. globistylosa
+ Utricles longer than 4 mm, shortly beaked at apex; style not thickened or only slightly thickened at base, not exserted from utricle; female glumes 3.8-5 mm   (25)
25 (24) Utricles hispidulous on veins and upper margins; female spike densely flowered but loosely flowered at lower part; female glumes truncate or emarginate at apex.   153 C. huolushanensis
+ Utricles densely pubescent or puberulent; female spike densely flowered; female glumes rounded or emarginate at apex   (26)
26 (25) Female glumes dark brown, scabrous abaxially and on veins; leaves much shorter than culm; involucral bract blades setaceous.   154 C. chiwuana
+ Female glumes brownish or dark purple-brown, smooth abaxially; leaves shorter than or nearly equaling culm; involucral bract blades shortly leaflike   (27)
27 (26) Female glumes dark purple-brown, mucronate at apex; utricles only 2-veined laterally.   157 C. obovatosquamata
+ Female glumes brownish, shortly awned or muticous at apex; utricles 2-veined laterally and thinly several veined   (28)
28 (27) Culms trigonous, scabrous; female glumes 4.3-4.7 mm.   155 C. cardiolepis
+ Culms subterete, smooth; female glumes 2-3 mm.   156 C. dayuongensis

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