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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 23 | Cyperaceae

58. CAREX sect. HOLARRHENAE (Döll) Pax in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 2(2): 124. 1888.

二柱薹草组 er zhu tai cao zu

Carex [unranked] Holarrhenae Döll, Fl. Baden, 245. 1857.

Plants usually with long creeping rhizome. Leaves: side of sheath opposite blade herbaceous and membranous only near orifice. Involucral bracts usually glumelike. Inflorescence dense, spicate; spikes androgynous (or unisexual). Utricles plano-convex, papery or membranous, veined, in upper half with very narrow denticulate winglike margins, beak scarcely 2-toothed. Nutlets loosely enveloped, shorter than utricle bodies.

About 11 species: temperate zone of Asia, Europe, North America; 11 species (five endemic) in China.

1 Utricles leathery, with winglike thickened margins, scabrous above, veins numerous on both faces, conspicuously raised.   503 C. curaica
+ Utricles membranous, with winged margins (at least above), veins not conspicuously raised   (2)
2 (1) Utricles winged on margins above   (3)
+ Utricles narrowly winged on margins   (4)
3 (2) Utricles ovate or oblong-ovate, sparsely pilose on both faces, rather densely so above, and usually verruculose.   493 C. pallida
+ Utricles obovate-oblong, distally verruculose and sparsely hirsute on both faces.   494 C. maorshanica
4 (2) Utricles pubescent and verruculose, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate   (5)
+ Utricles glabrous, not verruculose, ovate or elliptic-ovate   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blades 2.5-3.5 mm wide; utricles 3.5-4.5 mm, pubescent on both faces, sometimes sparsely long puberulent at base.   495 C. dailingensis
+ Leaf blades 1.5-2 mm wide; utricles 5.5-6.5 mm, verruculose and sparsely hirsute on both faces above.   496 C. laricetorum
6 (4) Utricles ovate to broadly ovate, spongy.   497 C. lithophila
+ Utricles elliptic-ovate or ovate-lanceolate, not spongy   (7)
7 (6) Spikes usually unisexual; plants dioecious (rarely monoecious); utricles usually sparsely ferruginous dotted.   498 C. unisexualis
+ Spikes usually androgynous, rarely unisexual; plants monoecious; utricles not ferruginous dotted   (8)
8 (7) Utricles 2-toothed at orifice   (9)
+ Utricles obliquely truncate at orifice, deeply cleft to middle or 2-toothed abaxially   (10)
9 (8) Utricles gradually attenuate into a long beak; creeping rhizome subterete; plants of forests or sandy beaches.   499 C. yamatsutana
+ Utricles abruptly constricted into a short beak; creeping rhizome trigonous; plants of swamps.   500 C. pseudocuraica
10 (8) Female glumes oblong, ca. 4 mm, apex acuminate.   501 C. jiaodongensis
+ Female glumes broadly ovate or suborbicular, 2-2.2 mm, apex obtuse.   502 C. paracuraica

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