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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Moraceae | Ficus

1. Ficus subgen. Urostigma (Gasparrini) Miquel, Ann. Mus. Bot. Lugduno-Batavi. 3: 285. 1867.

榕亚属 rong ya shu

Urostigma Gasparrini, Giorn. Bot. Ital. 1: 215. 1844.

Shrubs or multistemmed trees, often initially epiphytic or epilithic, rarely terrestrial; monoecious. Stipules fully amplexicaul. Branches usually with long aerial adventitious roots. Leaf blade unlobed, symmetric, margin entire; wax gland solitary, abaxially at base of midvein. Figs usually axillary on normal leafy stems, rarely cauliflorous, interfloral bracts usually present, internal bristles sometimes present, apical pore with interlocking bracts, circular with 2 or 3 bracts visible or upper bracts descending and aperture slit-shaped or 3-radiate; peduncle with 3 basal bracts in a collar; lateral bracts usually absent. Male flowers: dispersed or around apical pore; stamen 1(or 2); pistillode usually absent. Female flowers: stigma usually simple, filiform, mostly conspicuously papillate. Fruit an achene or ± drupaceous.

Between 280 and 300 species: throughout tropics and subtropics worldwide; 23 species (one introduced) in China.

The fig wasps that pollinate members of Ficus subgen. Urostigma belong to some 12 genera, each mostly associated with a particular section or subsection of this subgenus.

1 Stipules 10-13 cm.   (2)
+ Stipules 0.4-6 cm (sometimes to 10 cm in F. virens).   (3)
2 (1) Leaf blade secondary veins 6-9 on each side of midvein, reticulate near margin, conspicuous on both surfaces when dry; figs 2-2.7 × 1-1.5 cm.   8 F. hookeriana
+ Leaf blade secondary veins many on each side of midvein, closely parallel, inconspicuous; figs ca. 1 × 0.5-0.8 cm.   11 F. elastica
3 (1) Fig interfloral bristles abundant and conspicuous; involucral bracts persistent.   (4)
+ Fig interfloral bristles few, small, and inconspicuous, sometimes absent; involucral bracts caducous or persistent.   (6)
4 (3) Leaf blade elliptic to oblong; secondary veins 9-15 on each side of midvein.   1 F. caulocarpa
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate, ovate-lanceolate, narrowly lanceolate, elliptic-ovate, ± elliptic, or obovate; secondary veins 5-12 on each side of midvein.   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade apex mucronate; figs borne on short branchlets or on older leafless branchlets, 5-7 mm in diam., sessile or subsessile.   2 F. geniculata
+ Leaf blade apex acuminate to shortly acuminate; figs paired or solitary and axillary on leafy branchlets, or in clusters on leafless older branchlets, 7-12 mm in diam., sessile or pedunculate.   3 F. virens
6 (3) Figs clearly pedunculate.   (7)
+ Figs sessile or subsessile.   (11)
7 (6) Petiole more than 9 cm, as long as or longer than leaf blade; leaf blade triangular-ovate, apex acute to caudate.   6 F. religiosa
+ Petiole 1-7 cm, usually less than 1/2 as long as leaf blade; leaf blade elliptic, elliptic-lanceolate, oblong, or obovate, apex rounded, mucronate, or acuminate.   (8)
8 (7) Stipules 1.2-2 cm; figs 0.5-1 cm in diam.   (9)
+ Stipules 2-6 cm; figs 1-2 cm in diam.   (10)
9 (8) Peduncle 3-8 mm; figs purplish black when mature; petiole 3-7 cm.   4 F. subpisocarpa
+ Peduncle 10-15 mm; figs orange-yellow when mature; petiole 1-3 cm.   16 F. glaberrima
10 (8) Figs globose to ovoid-globose, 1-2 cm; apical bracts ± persistent, sometimes losing only apical portion; leaf blade 8-15 cm.   9 F. orthoneura
+ Figs ovoid to cylindric, 2-2.5 cm; apical bracts caducous, leaving well-defined annular scar; leaf blade 13-28 cm.   12 F. annulata
11 (6) Petiole 6-8 cm; leaf blade with 2 pairs of basal lateral veins, outer pair thin and short.   10 F. rumphii
+ Petiole 0.5-5 cm; leaf blade with 1 pair of basal lateral veins (sometimes with 2 pairs in F. drupacea).   (12)
12 (11) Stipules 2-3 cm.   (13)
+ Stipules 0.4-2.5 cm.   (14)
13 (12) Stipules membranous with thick hairs; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to obovate-elliptic, base rounded, ± cordate, or ± auriculate; secondary veins 8-11 on each side of midvein.   13 F. drupacea
+ Stipules thickly leathery, with gray silky hairs; leaf blade broadly ovate to broadly ovate-elliptic, base broadly cuneate; secondary veins 5-7 on each side of midvein.   14 F. altissima
14 (12) Leaf blade with reticulate tertiary veins.   (15)
+ Leaf blade with reticulate tertiary veins indistinct from secondary veins or absent.   (17)
15 (14) Figs top-shaped -globose, 0.5-0.7 cm in diam.; involucral bracts persistent; leaf blade with cystoliths on both surfaces.   18 F. pisocarpa
+ Figs globose, ± globose, or pear-shaped, 1-1.3 cm in diam.; involucral bracts caducous or obscure; leaf blade abaxially with cystoliths.   (16)
16 (15) Branchlets green, drying pale brown; leaf blade with 5 or 6 secondary veins on each side of midvein; figs with apex slightly raised.   15 F. pubilimba
+ Branchlets dark brown; leaf blade with 6-9 secondary veins on each side of midvein; figs with apex slightly sunken.   17 F. kurzii
17 (14) Secondary veins inconspicuously raised.   (18)
+ Secondary veins conspicuously raised.   (20)
18 (17) Leaf blade 12-18 cm, thickly leathery, apex rounded; branchlets 5-8 mm in diam.; figs 1-1.5 cm in diam.; involucral bracts 3-4 mm.   21 F. curtipes
+ Leaf blade 4-13 cm, leathery or ± leathery, apex acuminate to mucronate or ± obtuse; branchlets thin; figs 0.6-0.8 cm in diam.; involucral bracts 1-3 mm.   (19)
19 (18) Leaves leathery, glabrous when dry; basal veins conspicuously raised; secondary veins extended in a right angle; figs purplish red when mature.   19 F. maclellandii
+ Leaves ± leathery, not glabrous when dry; basal veins not raised; secondary veins extended in a blunt angle; figs yellow to slightly red when mature.   20 F. microcarpa
20 (17) Leaf blade with 4-8 secondary veins on each side of midvein.   (21)
+ Leaf blade with 8-16 secondary veins on each side of midvein.   (22)
21 (20) Leaf blade narrowly elliptic, base cuneate; petiole 1-2 cm; involucral bracts caducous.   5 F. concinna
+ Leaf blade ovate to cordate, base rounded to ± cordate; petiole 2-4 cm; involucral bracts persistent.   7 F. cardiophylla
22 (20) Involucral bracts conspicuous; figs 1.5-1.8 cm in diam.   22 F. stricta
+ Involucral bracts inconspicuous; figs usually 0.8-1 cm in diam. (var. nuda 1.5-2 cm in diam.).   23 F. benjamina

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