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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 22 | Poaceae | Dendrocalamus

1. Dendrocalamus subg. Dendrocalamus

牡竹亚属 mu zhu ya shu

Culms apically nodding, not pendulous (except in Dendrocalamus hamiltonii and D. semiscandens); wall thick; branching from lower nodes. Branches unequal, 1–3 dominant. Culm sheaths thickly papery. Leaves small; auricles small. Pseudospikelets usually many, clustered on each node of flowering branches into a spicate globose mass. Lemma mucronate or long mucronate.

About 20 species: widely distributed in tropical Asia; 16 species (eight endemic) in China.

Dendrocalamus parishii (species no. 16) could not be included in the following key because its culm sheaths are not known.

1 Culm sheath blade erect, triangular, base about as wide as apex of culm sheaths; auricles absent, ligule short; dominant branches 3; pseudospikelets 1–10 per fascicle, not in globose head; lemma shortly mucronate   (2)
+ Culm sheath blade reflexed or erect, when erect apex of culm sheaths broadly ovate; mouth and base of culm sheath narrow; dominant branches none or 1 (but 3 in D. brandisii); pseudospikelets many, clustered, globose; glumes and lemma long mucronate   (3)
2 (1) Culms 12–25 m, 12–18 cm in diam.; branching from 9th to 14th node up; lemma apically obtuse.   6 D. tibeticus
+ Culms 7–15 m, 6–8 cm in diam.; branching from ca. 4th node up; lemma apically deeply cleft.   5 D. bambusoides
3 (1) Culm sheath blade reflexed, ligule well developed, marginal cilia or bristles 1.5–2 cm; spikelets flat on both sides, apex obtuse; florets separate from each other and each opening when mature; lemmas all 2-keeled; lodicules absent or 2; stigmas 1, rarely 3   (4)
+ Culm sheath blade erect or reflexed; ligule short, to 10 mm, marginal cilia or bristles absent or to 1 cm; spikelets rounded, apex acute; florets not separate from each other and remaining closed when mature; lemma of upper floret not 2-keeled; lodicules absent; stigmas 1 (but 2 in D. brandisii)   (7)
4 (3) Culm sheath auricles obvious; oral setae 5–10 mm; ligule 2–3 mm, marginal cilia or setae 1.5–2 cm.   10 D. liboensis
+ Culm sheath auricles reduced or absent; oral setae to 3 mm; marginal cilia usually to 1 cm   (5)
5 (4) Culm sheath ligules 4–10 mm; leaf sheaths initially hispid.   7 D. farinosus
+ Culm sheath ligules 2–4 mm; leaf sheaths glabrous   (6)
6 (5) Culm internodes initially sparsely white powdery, wall very thin (1–4 mm); culm sheath ligule ca. 2 mm, with marginal cilia 5–10 mm.   8 D. tsiangii
+ Culm internodes initially densely white powdery, wall thick; culm sheath ligule ca. 4 mm, fimbriate or with marginal cilia 1–2 mm.   9 D. pulverulentus
7 (3) Culm sheath blade erect; ligule 2–3 mm   (8)
+ Culm sheath blade reflexed (but erect in D. brandisii); ligule (2–)3–10 mm   (10)
8 (7) Cavity of culm narrow, or absent in basal internodes; pseudospikelets rigid, usually ciliate; glume and lemma both long mucronate.   1 D. strictus
+ Cavity of culm broad; pseudospikelets soft, usually glabrous; glume and lemma usually shortly mucronate   (9)
9 (8) Culms nodding, internodes partially covered with gray scurfy stripes initially; pseudospikelets globose, 1–2 cm in diam   11 D. hamiltonii
+ Culms pendulous, but because of developed main branch (sometimes as robust as culm) upper part of culm climbing; internode completely covered with gray cilia, cilia not in stripes; pseudospikelets globose, 1.9–3.2 cm in diam   12 D. semiscandens
10 (7) Culm sheath auricles and oral setae inconspicuous   (11)
+ Culm sheath auricles obvious, oral setae well developed, 5–8 mm   (13)
11 (10) Internodes white powdery, without hairs; pseudospikelets usually glabrous; leaves thin.   2 D. membranaceus
+ Internodes white hairy; pseudospikelets usually ciliate   (12)
12 (11) Internodes with stripes of gray cilia, dominant branches developed or not, other branches on same node slender and surrounding culm; culm sheath ligule ca. 10 mm; culm 20–40 m, 12.5–20 cm in diam   13 D. brandisii
+ Internodes with uniformly distributed, gray cilia, cilia not in stripes; dominant branches 3, other branches on same node not enclosing culm; culm sheath ligule 4–5 mm; culms 7–10 m, to 8 cm in diam   4 D. birmanicus
13 (10) Leaves 1–2 cm wide, secondary veins 5- or 6-paired.   3 D. barbatus
+ Leaves (1.5–)3–7 cm wide, secondary veins 7–13-paired   (14)
14 (13) Internodes white powdery, glabrous; leaf blade 15–30 × 3.8–7 cm, secondary veins 10–12-paired; culm sheath auricles obvious.   14 D. sikkimensis
+ Internodes very thinly white powdery, brown setose; leaf blade 20–35 × 3–5 cm, secondary veins 7–11-paired; culm sheath auricles inconspicuous.   15 D. asper

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