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Araceae/Ecuador | Family List | Araceae | Dracontium

Dracontium grandispathum G. Zhu

Tuber hemispherical, 10–18 cm diam., 6–10 cm thick, flat above, rounded and whitish to brownish below, 12–20 cm below ground level. Cataphylls 3–4, 12–21 cm long, 2–3 cm wide, light brown, reaching or surpassing ground level. Leaf solitary; petiole 1.25–2.75 m long above ground, 2–3.5 cm diam. at mid-point, dark green, contrastingly mottled with dirty-white or pale green blotches and forming a reptilian pattern, usually smooth in upper half and with irregular protuberances in lower half. Juvenile blade sagittate, or sagittately lobed. Adult blade spreading horizontally, 1–1.2 m diam., subcoriaceous, sometimes fenestrate, never variegated, without raphide cells or dark markings, glossy and medium green above, semiglossy and medium green below; middle division twice trichotomously branched, 55–75 cm long, 50–60 cm wide, with terminal subdivision consisting of three sections, with each basal subdivision consisting of many segments; lateral divisions twice dichotomously branched, 55–75 cm long, 55–60 cm wide, with terminal subdivision consisting of two sections, with basal subdivision consisting of many segments; terminal and subterminal sections confluent (often), each consisting of many segments; leaf segments often entire, broadly oblanceolate, more than 5 cm wide on each side of the major ribs, ovate or lanceolate, mostly not confluent with each other in each division, without contrastingly smaller rounded or triangular segments (often); apices acuminate; ultimate segments 25–30 cm long, not confluent with penultimate segments (often); other segments 15–20 cm long; penultimate segments not confluent with the subterminal sections; medial segments confluent with the basal subdivisions; basal segments present, free from each other; rachises patterned similar to petiole but in much paler shades, smooth; tertiary veins conspicuous above and weakly raised below. Bracteoles 3–4, 12–22 cm long, 2–3 cm wide, light brown, the longest one much shorter than the peduncle, confined to the base of the peduncle. Inflorescence solitary, appearing before or after new leaf. Peduncle 100–135 cm long above ground, 1.5–2 cm diam. at mid-point, more than half as long as the petiole, mottled similar to petiole but deeper in color, brownish green, smooth or spiny projections. Spathe 45–50 cm long, 10–15 cm wide, non-cymbiform, constricted at a certain point and differentiated into a proximal tube and a distal lamina (blade), cucullate or non-cucullate, erect or slightly arching, apex acuminate (very broadly); 10–15 cm long, 10–15 cm wide at widest point; lamina 2–3 times longer than the tube; inner surface semiglossy, maroon or purplish red or olive-brown, with translucent area obvious, 12–15 cm high, 1.5–3 time longer than spadix; outer surface olive-brown or green or green tinged brown, matte; margins entire, broadly overlapping at the base; veins conspicuous inside and raised outside, conspicuously darker or paler than the spathe, purple. Spadix hidden, stipitate, cylindric, pale green or light brown, 3–5.5 cm long, 1–1.5 cm diam. at anthesis, never with appendages at apex; stipe 0.5–1 cm long, 0.5–0.7 cm diam. at anthesis, light brown or dark purple. Flower tepals 5–6, 1–3 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, light brown or purple. Stamens 7–11; filaments 1–2 mm long; anthers 0.5 mm long, hidden or slightly exserted. Ovary 3-locular, pale green; stigma unlobed, or 3-lobed; style 0.5–1 mm long above tepals, dark purple, persistent. Infructescence with spadix 12–18 cm long, 2.5–3.5 cm diam. in fruit. Berries 0.5–0.6 cm diam., 0.8–1 cm thick, obliquely obovoid, apically rounded; young berry light green; mature berry orange, without reddish dots and raphide cells. Seeds 1-seeded or 2-seeded, 0.6–0.7 cm diam., rounded, reddish brown, laterally flattened; dorsal ridges obvious, 3, strongly interrupted (often), with the central ridge contrastingly raised, more than 1 mm thick, 0.1–0.2 mm high, warty along ridges.

Type: Ecuador. Napo: Cañon de los Monos, 15 km N of Coca near Río Coca, Hacienda of Hector Noboa, 250 m, 0°20'S, 77°1''W, Palacios et al. 311 (holotype, MO)..

Napo: Baeza to Tena Road, 5 km N of Jondachi, 0°40'S, 77°50'W, 1100 m, Harling 16404 (GB); road to Loreto (56 km S of Baeza), 18 km E of junction with Baeza﷓Tena Road, 0°50'S, 77°41'W, 1200 m, Hammel 17283 (MO); Cantón Lago Agrio, Parroquia Dureño, Comunidad indígena Cofán﷓ Dureño, 0°2'S, 76°42'W, 350 m, Cerón & Cerón 3070 (MO, QCA); Cañon de los Monos, 15 km N of Coca near Río Coca, hacienda de Hector Noboa, 0°20°S, 77°1'W, 250 m, Palacios 311 (MO); Dureño on Río Aguarico, 0°5'N, 76°40'W, Pinkley 60 (ECON); Jatún Sacha, Cantón Tena. Estación Biológica Jatún Sacha. Río Napo, 8 km al este de Misahuallì, 1°4'S, 77°36'W, 400 m, Palacios 4242 (MO); Parque Nacional Yasuní, Carretera y oleoducto de Maxus at km 1 Pompeya, 2°8'S, 76°40''W, 250 m, Aulestia 1823 (QCNE, MO); Parque Nacional Yasuní, Añangu, along Río Añangu near junction with Río Napo, 0°31'S, 76°23'W, 270 m, Luteyn et al. 9021 (MO, QCA); Río Napo, Añangu, 0°31--32'S, 76°23'W, 260--350 m, Lawesson et al. 39334 (AAU); San José de distal Payamino, 40 km W of Coca, 0°30'S, 77°20'W, 300--600 m, Jipa 968 (F). Pastaza: Montalvo, S side of Río Bobonaza, 0--2 km SW of military camp, 2°5'S, 76°58'W, 250--300 m, Lojtnant & Molau 13549 (AAU). MoronaSantiago: Méndez to Morona road at Km 45--63, 2°45'S, 77°55'W, 800--1000 m, Dodson 17756 (MO). CULTIVATED : vouchered by Pinkley 60, Pinkley 294 (ECON).


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