Description from Flora of China
Coristospermum Bertoloni; Dystaenia Kitagawa; Ligusticopsis Leute; Paraligusticum V. N. Tikhomirov; Rupiphila Pimenov & Lavrova; Tilingia Regel & Tiling.
Herbs perennial. Root cylindrical or fusiform; rootstock thick or slightly inflated. Stem erect, striate, base usually clothed in fibrous remnant sheaths. Basal and lower leaves petiolate, sheathing; blade 1–3-pinnate or ternate-2–4-pinnate. Cauline leaves gradually reduced upward or absent. Inflorescence branching, rarely unbranched; umbels compound, terminal and lateral, or only terminal; bracts few, usually caducous or absent; rays often slightly incurved, convergent in fruit; bracteoles lanceolate or linear, entire or apex 2–3-lobed or 1–3-pinnate. Calyx teeth conspicuous, shorter than to subequal the stylopodium or obsolete. Petals white, purple, violet or pale pinkish, apex notched with incurved apical lobule. Stylopodium conic; styles spreading or erect in flower, reflexed after flowering. Fruit oblong or oblong-ovoid, dorsally compressed; ribs all prominent or lateral ribs narrowly winged; vittae (1–)2–5 in each furrow, 2–10 on commissure. Seed face plane, rarely slightly concave. Carpophore 2-cleft to base.
Ligusticum is a widespread, complex genus the taxonomy of which is in a state of flux. Relationships with nearby genera such as Cnidium, Hymenidium, Ligusticopsis, Pachypleurum, Paraligusticum, Rupiphila, Selinum, and Tilingia are still being clarified. As a general consensus has yet to be reached, and many species are very poorly known (often only from a type collection), a conservative, traditional classification has been adopted here, with the knowledge that Ligusticum in the broad sense is an artificial assemblage.
The following taxa have been described from Chinese material, but are imperfectly known as no specimens have been seen or the specimens are inadequate.
Ligusticum elegans H. Wolff (Acta Horti Gothob. 2: 312. 1926), described from Hebei (“Hsiao-wu-tai-shan [Xiaowutai Shan], Yang-kia-p’ing, Hsi-lin,” ca. 2200 m, K. A. H. Smith 1167, holotype, GB).
Ligusticum falcarioides H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 311. 1930), described from Yunnan (“Hiss-chong-chang,” 2600 m, E. E. Maire 3942, holotype, P).
Ligusticum ferulaceum Franchet (Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, sér. 8, 6: 135. 1894, not Lamarck, 1779, nor Allioni, 1785, nor Lapeyrouse, 1813), published in observations without type information.
Ligusticum glaucescens Franchet (Bull. Soc. Philom. Paris, sér. 8, 6: 134. 1894), described from Yunnan (“Pee-ngay-tze” & “Mo-che-tchin, supra Tapin-tze,” P. J. M. Delavay 446 & s.n., syntypes, P).
Ligusticum jeholense (Nakai & Kitagawa) Nakai & Kitagawa var. tenuisectum Y. C. Chu (Fl. Pl. Herb. Chin. Bor.-Orient. 6: 293. 1977), described from Liaoning (Benxi, Huanren, Deng Yu-chen 1263, holotype, FPI).
Ligusticum kiangsiense H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 326. 1930), described from Jiangxi (Du Bois-Reymond 733, holotype, unlocalized).
Ligusticum kulingense H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 314. 1930), described from Jiangxi (“Kuling Suschangebige,” ca. 1100 m, Du Bois-Reymond s.n. holotype, unlocalized).
Ligusticum levisticifolium H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 323. 1930 [“levistifolium”]), described from Xizang (“Tsé-Kou,” J. T. Monbeig 85, holotype, E; isotype ?P).
Ligusticum limprichtii H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 12: 452. 1922), described from Sichuan (“Paoshing” [Baoxing], 2850 m, W. Limpricht 1053, holotype, unlocalized).
Ligusticum longilobum H. Wolff (Acta Horti Gothob. 2: 313. 1926), described from Jilin (“Hsiaowhutai Shan” [Xiaowutai Shan], 2300 m, K. A. H. Smith 101, holotype, W).
Ligusticum pseudoangelica H. de Boissieu (Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2, 3: 845. 1903; Pleurospermum pseudoangelica (H. de Boissieu) H. de Boissieu), described from W Sichuan (“Tongolo,” J. A. Soulié 119 & 122, syntypes, P).
Ligusticum pseudodaucoides H. Peng & Yin Z. Wang (Novon 8: 50. 1998; Ligusticopsis pseudodaucoides (H. Peng & Yin Z. Wang) Pimenov & Kljuykov), described from Yunnan (Jingdong, Wuliang Shan, Mt. Maotou, ca. 3300 m, H. Peng 2579, holotype, KUN).
Ligusticum rockii M. Hiroe (Umbel. Asia 1: 110. 1958), described from Yunnan (“Mount Mitzuga, W of Muil Gomba,” 3050–4875 ft, J. F. C. Rock 16541, holotype, UC).
Ligusticum sinense Oliver var. alpinum R. H. Shan ex K. T. Fu (Fl. Tsinling. 1(3): 461. 1981), described from Shaanxi (“Hwain Hsien, Tapaiyangcha,” 1400–1900 m, K. T. Fu 17254, holotype, WNU).
Ligusticum smithii H. Wolff (Acta Horti Gothob. 2: 314. 1926), described from Hebei (“Hsiao-wu-tai-shan [Xiaowutai Shan], Yang-kia-p’ing, Hsi-lin,” 1600–2600 m, K. A. H. Smith 1097, holotype, GB).
Ligusticum tibetanicum H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 317. 1930), described from Gansu (E. Licent 4810, syntype, unlocalized) and Xizang (“Kokonor,” Anderson 1215 and Futerer & Holderer 96, syntypes, unlocalized).
Ligusticum wawrae H. Wolff (Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 27: 318. 1930), described from Beijing (“Tse-tai-ssú,” H. Wawra von Fernsee 1065, holotype, W).
About 60 species: Asia, Europe, North America; 40 species (35 endemic) in China.
(Authors: Pu Fading (溥发鼎 Pu Fa-ting); Mark F. Watson)