Description from Flora of China
Herbs, terrestrial, small to medium-sized. Tubers ovoid or ellipsoid; roots filiform, emerging from subterranean stem at apex of tubers. Stem usually erect, terete, with tubular sheaths near base, glabrous. Leaves 2-5, basal or cauline, alternate, rarely subopposite, base contracted into clasping sheaths, spotted or not. Inflorescence terminal, cylindric, few to many flowered; floral bracts lanceolate to ovate, membranous. Flowers resupinate, secund or not, small to medium-sized; ovary twisted, pedicellate. Sepals free, glabrous; dorsal sepal erect, often concave; lateral sepals spreading, erect or connivent with dorsal sepal and petals to form a hood. Petals free, usually porrect; lip simple or 3- or 4-lobed, spurred at base or rarely spurless; disk with or without basal calli. Column stout; anther erect, base firmly adnate to apex of column, with 2 parallel or divergent locules; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, each attached to a viscidium by a slender caudicle; each viscidium enclosed in a sticky globe, both globes enclosed in a common bursicle formed by folding of rostellar arms; stigma lobes confluent, concave, beneath rostellum; rostellum slightly protruding, with 2 arms; auricles 2, on each side of column. Capsule erect.
About 20 species: mainly in Europe, temperate C and W Asia, and N Africa; one species in China.
(Authors: Chen Xinqi (陈心启 Chen Sing-chi); Phillip J. Cribb, Stephan W. Gale)