Description from Flora of China
Trees to 45 m tall; trunk to 1.5 m d.b.h.; bark red-brown toward apex of trunk, gray- or red-brown toward base, irregularly scaly and flaking; crown broadly pyramidal or umbrellalike; branchlets usually growing twice per year, yellowish brown, occasionally glaucous; winter buds brown, ovoid-cylindric or cylindric. Needles 2(or 3) per bundle, slightly twisted, 12-20 cm, stomatal lines present on all surfaces, resin canals 4-8, marginal, base with persistent sheath. Seed cones pendulous, shortly pedunculate, green, turning chestnut brown at maturity, ovoid, conical-ovoid, or ovoid-cylindric, 2.5-7 × 2.5-5 cm. Seed scales suboblong-obovoid or subsquare; apophyses rhombic, slightly swollen or flat, slightly transversely ridged; umbo flattened, slightly sunken, blunt or shortly mucronate in apical part of cone. Seeds narrowly ovoid, 4-6 mm; wing 1.6-2.1 cm. Pollination Apr-May, seed maturity Oct-Dec of 2nd year.
An important tree for afforestation in S China. The timber is used for construction, railway sleepers, mine timber, furniture, wood pulp, etc., and the trunk as a source of resin and tannin,
and for cultivating fungi.
* Plains, hills, mountains; near sea level to 2000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, W Henan, Hubei, Hunan, S Jiangsu, Jiangxi, SE Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, E Yunnan, Zhejiang