Description from Flora of China
Euphorbia barbellata Hurusawa; E. cavaleriei H. Léveillé & Vaniot; E. hurusawae Oudejans; E. hurusawae var. imaii (Hurusawa) Oudejans; E. imaii Hurusawa; E. jesonii Oudejans; E. kitagawae (Hurusawa) Kitagawa; E. labbei H. Léveillé; E. lanceolata T. N. Liou; E. lasiocaula Boissier; E. lasiocaula var. pseudolucorum Hurusawa; E. sinensis Jesson; E. sampsonii Hance; E. tchen-ngoi (Soják) Radcliffe-Smith; E. virgata Waldstein & Kitaibel var. kitagawae Hurusawa; Tithymalus tchen-ngoi Soják.
Herbs, perennial, 40-80(-90) cm tall. Rootstock vertical, cylindric, 20-30 cm × 6-14 mm thick, sometimes branched. Stems single or clustered, 3-6(-7) mm thick, upper parts 4- or 5-branched, pilose or glabrous. Leaves alternate; stipules absent; petiole absent or nearly so; leaf blade very variable, usually elliptic, occasionally lanceolate, narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, rarely linear, 3-7(-9.5) × 0.7-1.7(-2.4) cm, both surfaces glabrous or abaxially pilose or pubescent, base subrounded or subtruncate for lower leaves, attenuate for upper leaves, margin entire or serrulate, apex acuminate or acute; midrib raised abaxially, often grooved adaxially, lateral veins inconspicuous, much varied. Inflorescence usually a terminal compound pseudumbel, sometimes much branched, sometimes with slender long pedunculate cymes or pseudumbels from axils below; primary involucral leaves 4-7(-16), leaflike but shorter, narrowly elliptic, base rounded, apex acute, primary rays 4-7, 2-5 cm; cyathophylls 2, base ± truncate, apex subrounded with micro-tip. Cyathium sessile; involucre cuplike, ca. 3.5 × 3.5-4 mm, lobes rounded, irregularly ciliate; glands 4, pale brown, rounded or reniform-rounded, entire. Male flowers many, exserted from involucre. Female flower: ovary pedicel 3-5(-6) mm, exserted from cup; ovary densely tuberculate; styles free, persistent but easily fallen; style arms 2-lobed. Capsule globose, ca. 4.5 × 4-4.5 mm, sparsely tuberculate. Seeds long globose, ca. 2.5 × 1.5-2 mm, dark brown or slightly shiny, adaxially slightly colored striate; caruncle subpeltate, sessile. Fl. May-Aug.
Euphorbia pekinensis is the most variable species in China, especially on indumentum, and requires much more extensive study.
The root is used medicinally.
Slopes, scrub, roadsides, fields, grasslands, steppes, sparse forests; common. Throughout China except Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Japan, Korea].