Description from Flora of China
Habenaria brevicalcarata (Hayata) Masamune (1968), not Fukuyama (1932).
Plants 7-20 cm tall. Rootstock elongate, creeping, 2-6 cm, 2-5 mm in diam., stoloniferous. Stem erect or ascending, with 1 or 2 tubular sheaths at base, 1- or 2-leaved. Leaves basal, widely spaced, oblong to elliptic, 2-6 × 1-3 cm, base cuneate, apex acute. Peduncle slender, with 1-4 foliaceous, lanceolate bracts; rachis 3-5 cm, 3-8-flowered; floral bracts lanceolate, 7-11 mm, ca. as long as or slightly exceeding ovary. Flowers white; pedicel and ovary cylindric-fusiform, 7-10 mm. Dorsal sepal forming a hood with petals, ovate to suborbicular, concave, 2.5-3 × 2-2.3 mm, glabrous, 1-veined, apex obtuse; lateral sepals spreading, obovate-elliptic, slightly oblique, 4-5 × 2-3 mm, glabrous, 1-veined, apex obtuse. Petals ovate, oblique, 2.5-3 × 1.8-2 mm, 1- or 2-veined, apex subobtuse; lip deflexed, oblong, 4-5.5 × 2-2.5 mm, entire, apex obtuse; spur pendulous, slightly incurved, cylindric, ca. 3 mm, apex rounded. Column short, ca. 1.5 mm; staminodes conspicuous; anther locules nearly parallel; pollinia ellipsoid, with slender caudicles and globose viscidia; rostellum protruding; stigma lobes confluent, slightly raised, anterior margin protruding beyond anther locules. Fl. May-Jul.
Coniferous and mixed broad-leaved forests, grasslands; 1600-3700 m. Taiwan [S Japan].