42. Sphagnum subsecundum Nees ex Sturm, Deutschl. Fl., Abt. II, Crypto. 2(17): 3. 1819.
Sphagnum contortum Schultz. var. subsecundum (Nees ex Sturm) Wils., Bryol. Brit. 22. 1855.
Sphagnum cavifolium Warnst., Eur. Torfm. 79. 1881, nom. superfl.
Plants small to rather robust, up to 20 cm high, grayish green to often yellow or distinctly brown, in loose cushions. Stem cortex in 1 layer, hyaline cells without fibrils and pores; central cylinder rather thick, yellowish tinged with dark brown. Stem leaves 0.5–1.0 mm × 0.4–0.8 mm, rather small, triangular-ligulate or ligulate, rounded, often hyaline and lacerate at the apex; borders narrow above, somewhat widened near the base; hyaline cells rarely divided, without fibrils, or with the traces of fibrils near the leaf apex, with rounded pores along commissural rows in the upper half on the ventral surface, with a few small pores at the corners, or numerous pores at the opposite ends on the dorsal surface. Branches in fascicles of 3–5, with 2–3 spreading, branch tips curved, slender and soft. Branch leaves 1.0–1.5 mm × 0.5–0.6 mm, broadly ovate-lanceolate, strongly concave, curved-secund in the upper half, blunt and dentate at the apex; margins involute, borders narrowly differentiated; hyaline cells fibrillose, with a single, small pore at the corners or numerous pores along commissural rows near the margins on the ventral surface, with numerous small, ringed pores along commissural rows on the dorsal surface; green cells in cross section narrowly rectangular or narrow-elliptic, centrally located, exposed on both surfaces. Dioicous; antheridial branches brownish. Perigonial leaves ovate. Perichaetial leaves ovate and concave, rounded at the apex, borders wide. Spores yellow, papillose, 25–28 µm in diameter.
Chinese specimens examined: ANHUI: Huang Shan (Mt.), S.-E. Liu 2754 (KUN). GUIZHOU: Jiang-kou Co., C. Gao 32678 (IFSBH, MO). HEILONGJIANG: Da Xing An Ling (Greater Khingan Mt.), C. Gao 830 (IFSBH), Y.-L. Zhang 000312 (IFSBH, KUN, MO). LIAONING: G.-Q. Cui 250 (KUN), C. Gao 939 (IFSBH, KUN). NEI MONGOL: Da Xing An Ling (Greater Khingan Mt.), P.-C. Chen & C. Gao 910 (IFSBH, KUN, MO), C. Gao 997 (IFSBH, KUN). YUNNAN: Kunming City, R. Xu 44a (KUN); Teng-chong Co., X.-J. Li 80544 (KUN, MO).
Habitat: in bogs and open hummocks or on wet ground in shade under forests; Distribution: China, Nepal, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Russian Far East, Europe, North and South America, New Guinea, Australia, and North Africa.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 22, figs. 1–7).