2. Ceratodon stenocarpus Bruch & Schimp. in B. S. G., Bryol. Eur. 2: 146. 1846.
Ceratodon purpureus ssp. stenocarpus (Bruch & Schimp.) Dix., New Zealand Inst. Bull. 3(2): 50. 1914.
Ceratodon purpureus var. stenocarpus (Bruch & Schimp.) Dix., J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 39(4): 773. 1937.
Ceratodon purpureus var. formosicus Card., Beih. Bot. Centralbl.19 (2): 100. 1905. Type. China: Taiwan, Tamsui (Tamshui), Faurie 85. Synonymized by Burley and Pritchard (1990).
Plants small, up to 1 cm high, yellowish green, in dense tufts. Stems erect, simple or rarely sparsely branched. Leaves crowded, strongly contorted when dry, erect-patent when moist, lanceolate or narrowly ovate-lanceolate, 1.0–1.9 mm long, gradually acuminate; margins strongly reflexed or revolute, irregularly serrate near the apex; costa stout, percurrent to shortly excurrent; upper and median cells quadrate, 8–10 µm wide, moderately thick-walled; basal cells rectangular, 13–20 µm × 13 µm, rather thin-walled. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves larger than the upper stem leaves, highly sheathing at base. Setae straight, often yellow or sometimes reddish brown, ca. 1.5 cm long; capsules suberect, long-cylindric, 4–5 times as long as wide, 2.0–2.5 mm × 0.5 mm, deeply furrowed when dry, strumose at base; opercula shortly conic-rostrate; annuli differentiated, in 2–3 rows of thick-walled cells; peristome teeth linear-lanceolate, 0.3–0.4 mm long, divided nearly to the base, papillose, basal membrane low. Spores 8–11 µm in diameter, yellow, nearly smooth.
Type. Mexico: Chinanthe, F. M. Liebmann 84.
Chinese specimens examined: TAIWAN: Tai-tung Co., S. Lin 158 (MO). XIZANG: Bo-mi Co., G.-C. Zhang & J.-Y. Feng 14906 (IFSBH); Cha-yu Co., S.-G. Wu 1070 (PE); Cuo-na Co., S.-K. Chen 5129 (PE); Shejila, S.-K. Chen 422 (PE); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 421 (KUN). YUNNAN: Ailao Shan (Mt.), J.-K. Zhang 595, 985 (YUKU); An-ning Co., Redfearn et al. 34350 (MO); Bin-chuan Co., M.-K. Cui 0061B (YUKU); Jing-hong Co., Redfearn et al. 34269 (MO); Lu-quan Co., W.-M. Zhu 64007 (YUKU); Teng-chong Co., S.-C. Xie 11a (YUKU); Zhong-dian Co., J.-K. Yang 81-B01 (YUKU).
Habitat: on soil or rarely on rocks; Distribution: nearly worldwide.
This species is very close to Ceratodon purpureus, but it differs in having strongly contorted leaves and elongated, nearly erect capsules that are 4–5 times longer than wide.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 38, figs. 8–14).