3. Dicranella cerviculata (Hedw.) Schimp., Coroll. Bryol. Eur. 13. 1856; Dicranum cerviculatum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 149. 1801.
Plants minute to small, 2–10 mm high, dull green or yellowish brown, in tufts. Stems erect, simple or branched. Leaves 1.0–1.5 mm long, lower ones slightly falcate, narrowly lanceolate, upper ones erect-spreading to flexuose or falcate-secund, linear-lanceolate, abruptly narrowed from a sheathing base to a long, channeled subula; margins plane, entire or serrulate near the apex; costa broad, occupying ca. ½ the leaf base width, long-excurrent, smooth at back; upper leaf cells short- to long-rectangular, 16–40 µm × 4–8 µm; lower cells shorter. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves similar to upper stem leaves. Setae straight, (5–)8–10(–15) mm long, yellow to yellowish brown; capsules ovoid, inclined, slightly curved, strumose, furrowed when dry and empty; opercula slenderly long-rostrate, curved, 0.5–1.0 mm long; annuli in 1 row of small, thick-walled cells, persistent; peristome teeth divided to the middle or lower, vertically pitted-striolate below. Spores 15–21 µm in diameter, smooth or finely roughened.
Syntypes. Sweden, England.
Chinese specimens examined: GUANGDONG: Shi-xing Co., P.-J. Lin & Y.-Y. Yang 4871 (IBSC, IFSBH). GUANGXI: Shang-si Co., C. Gao et al. 2240, 2314 (IFSBH). HEILONGJIANG: Xiao Xing An Ling (Lesser Khingan Mt.), C. Gao 381 (IFSBH), C. Gao 589 (MO). HUBEI: Wu-feng Co., Y.-S. Fu 5033 (IFSBH). ZHEJIANG: Putuo Shan (Mt.), D.-K. Li 5787 (IFSBH, SHM).
Habitat: on wet sandy soil near streams, roadsides or open fields; Distribution: Europe, Japan, North America, and Russian Far East.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 53, figs. 16–23).