4. Dicranum crispifolium C. Müll., Bot. Zeitung (Berlin). 22: 349. 1864.
Plants fairly large, up to 7 cm high, brownish green or reddish brown, weakly shiny, in loose or dense tufts. Stems reddish brown, erect or ascending, densely foliate, often dichotomously branched. Leaves crispate when dry, erect-patent to falcate-secund when moist, lanceolate, contracted at base, gradually narrowed from an oblong, somewhat sheathing base to a long, canaliculate acumen; margins plane, entire below, sharply double-toothed above; costa slender, reddish brown, shortly excurrent, serrate at back above; upper cells short-rectangular, 10–18 µm × 8–9 µm, thick-walled, slightly porose, sometimes projecting on the dorsal surface; basal cells elongate, 60–85 µm × 8–12 µm, thick-walled, porose; alar cells bulging out of leaf base, inflated, reddish brown near the margins, hyaline within. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves highly convolute-sheathing at base. Setae single, straight or slightly curved, up to 5 cm long; capsules short-cylindric, deep reddish brown, curved, ca. 5 mm × 1 mm; opercula obliquely long-rostrate; peristome teeth ca. 0.6 mm long, yellowish brown, not clearly divided, showing a fissure, papillose at the tips, without clear striolation at base. Spores 14–20 µm in diameter, yellowish brown, papillose.
Type. India: Darjeeling, Kurz 2076.
Chinese specimens examined: SICHUAN: Mu-li Co., C. Gao 20273, 20916 (IFSBH); Ning-yuen, Handel-Mazzetti 1511 (H); Yengyuen, Handel-Mazzetti 2442 (H). XIZANG: Cha-yu Co., M.-Z. Wang 12590(a) (IFSBH, PE); Lin-zhi Co., Z.-X. Tan 8 (2) (IFSBH); Mi-lin Co., S.-K. Chen 146 (IFSBH); Mo-tuo Co., Y.-G. Su 4875 (KUN); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 268 (IFSBH, KUN). YUNNAN: Gong-shan Co., M.-Z. Wang 97101 (IFSBH, PE); Jing-dong Co., J.-K. Zhang 1758 (IFSBH).
Habitat: on rotten logs or rocks; Distribution: China, Bhutan, Nepal, and India.
Illustration: Pl. 40, figs. 11–20.