8. Dicranum fulvum Hooker, Musci Exot. 2: 149. 1819.
Orthodicranum fulvum (Hook.) Roth in Casares-Gil. Fl. Iber. Briof., Musg. 176. 1932. Paraleucobryum fulvum (Hook.) Loeske in Podp., Consp. Musc. Eur. 153. 1954.
Dicranum subleiodontium Card., Bull. Herb. Boissier sér. 2, 7: 714. 1907.
Plants medium-sized, 2–5 cm high, soft, brownish green, not shiny, in dense tufts. Stems erect, or ascending, simple or branched, densely foliate above, tomentose below the middle. Leaves in multi-rows, flexuose or crispate when dry, erect-spreading or falcate-secund when moist, narrowly lanceolate, up to 6 mm long, rather abruptly narrowed from an oblong base to a long, setaceous acumen; margins plane and entire below, involute above, serrulate near the apex; costa stout, occupying ca. 1/3 the leaf base width, serrate at back above, excurrent, ending in a long hairpoint; upper cells mostly quadrate, bistratose near the apex, obscure, sometimes papillose on the leaf dorsal surface; basal cells subquadrate to short-rectangular, incrassate, not porose; alar cells quadrate, somewhat inflated, unistratose, extending to the costa, yellowish brown at the margins, hyaline next to the costa. Dioicous. Male plants smaller than the females, not dwarfed. Setae single, slender, straight, yellowish to brownish; capsules erect, symmetric, cylindric, often smooth when dry; opercula long-rostrate, ca. half of the urn length; annuli in 2–3 rows of large cells; peristome teeth lanceolate, divided to the middle or lower, faintly papillose above, faintly papillose-striolate below. Spores green, smooth or minutely papillose.
Type. Canada: Nova Scotia.
Chinese specimens examined: GUIZHOU: Sui-yang Co., C. Gao & J.-Y. Feng 33415 (IFSBH), C. Gao 33455 (IFSBH). SICHUAN: Nan-chuan Co., X.-Y. Hu 0586 (MO, PE), M.-Z. Wang 860872 (MO, PE).
Habitat: on rotten wood or rocks; Distribution: China, Korea, Japan, Russia, Europe, and North America.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 109, figs. 1–11).