1. Holomitrium cylindraceum (P. Beauv) Wijk & Marg., Taxon. 9: 190. 1960; Cecalyphum cylindraceum P. Beauv., Prodr. Aetheogam. 51. 1805.
Holomitrium vaginatum (Hook.) Brid., Bryol. Univ. 1: 227. 1826. Trichostomum vaginatum Hook., Musci Exot. 1: 64. 1818.
Plants small to medium-sized, up to 3 cm high, dull green, in loose tufts or mixed mats. Stems stout, lower part creeping, radiculose, upper part erect-ascending, usually branched; central strand present, small; brood bodies often clustered at the apex of stems. Leaves abruptly narrowed from an oblong-ovate, usually clasping and sheathing base to a subulate or long setaceous, slightly secund, obtuse apex, convolute, crispate when dry, erect-spreading when moist; margins plane, usually bistratose in the upper half; costa strong, percurrent to shortly excurrent; upper cells small, quadrate to rounded-quadrate, thick-walled, smooth; basal cells hyaline, shortly rectangular. Dioicous (pseudoautoicous). Male plants dwarfed, growing in rhizoids of female plants. Perichaetial leaves convolute and sheathing at base, abruptly narrowed to a subulate apex. Setae yellowish, ca. 1 mm long; capsules brownish, erect, oblong-ovoid; stomata present; opercula conic-rostrate; peristome teeth dicranoid. Spores not seen.
Chinese specimens examined: FUJIAN: Wuyi Shan (Mt.), P.-C. Chen 475 (IFSBH, PE). GUANGXI: Long-sheng Co., P.-C. Wu & Y.-X. Lin 388 (IFSBH, PE), P.-C. Wu et al. 898-1 (MO, as Holomitrium vaginatum).
Habitat: on rotten wood, bases of trees, or rocks; Distribution: China and Africa.
Illustrations: Pl. 49, figs. 1–9.