1. Paraleucobryum enerve (Thed.) Loeske, Hedwigia. 47: 171. 1908; Dicranum enerve Thed. in Hartm., Handb. Skand. Pl. (ed. 5) 393. 1849.
Dicranum albicans Bruch & Schimp., Bryol. Eur. 1: 149. 1850.
Paraleucobryum enerve f. falcatum Nog., J. Jap. Bot. 15: 756. 1939.
Plants 1–2 cm high, whitish green, in dense tufts. Stems erect, usually branched, radiculose below; central strand weakly developed. Leaves 4–5 mm long, erect-patent, slightly secund, lanceolate from a narrowly oblong-ovate base, gradually narrowed to a long-subtubulose acumen; margins nearly entire; costa broad, filling 2/3 or more the leaf base width, occupying most of the subula, excurrent, smooth at back above, with only a single median layer of chlorocysts, without dorsal ones in transverse section, hyaline cells on both surfaces; laminal cells in the shoulder thin-walled, elongate-rectangular, 50–73 µm × 8–13 µm, weakly pitted, in 8–10 rows of elongate cells on either sides of the costa, upper cells linear-rectangular, 40–90 µm × 5–7 µm; alar cells inflated, lax, forming indistinct auricles, hyaline to brownish. Perichaetial leaves similar to the upper stem leaves, but with a higher sheathing base. Setae straight, 1.5–2.0 cm long, yellowish brown; capsules ca. 2.5 mm long, cylindric, nearly smooth when dry; opercula long-rostrate, nearly as long as the urns; annuli developed; stomata present; peristome teeth divided halfway down, reddish below, yellowish brown above. Spores 16–25 µm in diameter, yellowish green.
Chinese specimens examined: JILIN: Chang-bai Co., C. Gao 1079, 22191, (IFSBH), C. Gao 22249 (MO). SHAANXI: Taibai Shan (Mt.), Z.-P. Wei 5679, 5791 (IFSBH). SICHUAN: Ba-tang Co., S. He 31562 (MO, PE); Dao-cheng Co., S. He 31870 (MO, PE), M.-Z. Wang 813934 (9) (IFSBH, PE); Li-tang Co., S. He 31876 (MO, PE); Tian-quan Co., C. Gao 17889 (IFSBH); Xiang-cheng Co., S. He 31752 (MO, PE); Ya-jiang Co., S. He 31896 (MO, PE); Yen-yuen Co., Handel-Mazzetti 1265 (MO, as Dicranum albicans). TAIWAN: Ilan Co., C.-C. Chuang 1792 (MO); Ping-tung Co., Chuang 1515b (UBC, fide Chuang 1973). XIZANG: Long-zhi Co., M. Zang 873, 874 (IFSBH, KUN); Mo-tuo Co., Y.-G. Su 5240 (IFSBH, KUN); Mt. Everest, X.-G. Wang 38 (MO); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 662, 702 (IFSBH, KUN). YUNNAN: Fu-gong Co., M.-Z. Wang 69442 (IFSBH, PE); Li-jiang Co., W.-X. Xu 243 (IFSBH, YUKU); Wei-xi Co., M.-Z. Wang 50850 (IFSBH, PE). ZHEJIANG: Xitainmu Shan (Mt.), R.-L. Hu 116 (a) (HSNU).
Habitat: on rotten logs, tree bases or rocks, rarely on humic soil; Distribution: China, Bhutan, India, Japan, Russia, Europe, and North America.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 85, figs. 1–8).