2. Paraleucobryum longifolium (Hedw.) Loeske, Hedwigia. 47: 171. 1908; Dicranum longifolium Ehrh. ex Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 130. 1801.
Plants medium-sized to large, up to 5(–8) cm high, green or yellowish green, with a grayish sheen when dry, in compact tufts. Stems erect or ascending, simple or branched, somewhat radiculose at base. Leaves 4–8 mm long, usually strongly falcate-secund, sometimes stiffly erect or fragile, linear-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a subtubulose apex; margins plane below, slightly involute and serrulate above; costa broad, occupying ½ or more the leaf base width, filling nearly all of the subula, excurrent, 2–4 layers of thick-walled cells in transverse section, with the dorsal rows of green cells interspreading among the hyaline cells, forming longitudinal striations; laminal cells at the shoulder, elongate-rectangular to linear, sometimes porose; alar cells inflated, hyaline or brownish, usually extending close to the costa; asexual reproduction sometimes by means of fragile leaves. Setae straight, up to 1.5 cm long, reddish brown, twisted clockwise when dry; capsules erect, oblong-cylindric, 1–3 mm long, reddish brown to dark brown, irregularly furrowed when dry or empty; opercula long-rostrate, nearly as long as or slightly shorter than the urns; annuli none; stomata present; peristome teeth divided, ca. halfway down, reddish or brownish, usually perforate below, obliquely to vertically striolate to the apex. Spores 25–34 µm in diameter, finely papillose.
Chinese specimens examined: HEILONGJIANG: Hai-lin Co., C. Gao 9154 (IFSBH), C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 9137 (IFSBH). JILIN: An-tuo Co., C. Gao 1048, 1054 (IFSBH); Chang-bai Co., C. Gao 7531 (IFSBH). SHAANXI: Taibai Shan (Mt.), Z.-P. Wei 5424 (IFSBH). SICHUAN: A-ba Co., S. He 31063 (MO, PE); Li Co., Allen 6844 (MO); Ma-er-kang Co., S. He 31173 (MO, PE); Mu-li Co., C. Gao 20402 (IFSBH); Tian-quan Co., C. Gao 17903 (IFSBH), S. He 32022a (MO, PE); Xiang-cheng Co., S. He 31757 (MO, PE). XIZANG: Cha-yu Co., M.-Z. Wang 8435a (IFSBH, KUN); Long-zi Co., M. Zang 901 (IFSBH, KUN); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 698, 715a (IFSBH, KUN). YUNNAN: Fu-gong Co., M.-Z. Wang 6754b (IFSBH, PE); Gong-shan Co., M.-Z. Wang 9434 (a-3) (IFSBH, PE), H.-G. Guo 20 (IFSBH, KUN); Li-jiang Co., W.-X. Xu 191 (IFSBH, YUKU).
Habitat: on rotten logs, tree bases or rocks, rarely on soil; Distribution: China, India, Japan, Russia, Europe, and North America.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 86, figs. 1–9).