3. Encalypta ciliata Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 1801.
Encalypta breviseta C. Müll., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. ser. 3: 103. 1896. Type. China: Shaanxi (Schen-si), “In medio monte Kuan-tou-san.” Jul. 1894, Giraldi s.n. (lectotype FI).
Encalypta erythrodonta C. Müll., Nuov. Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. ser. 5: 172. 1898. Type. China: Shaanxi (Schen-si), in monte Kuan-tou-san, 5 Nov. 1896, Giraldi s.n. (lectotype FI).
Encalypta laciniata Hedw. ex Lindb., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 10: 18. 1871, nom. illeg. incl. spec. prior.
Plants medium-sized to rather large, sometimes robust, 1–3(–3.5) cm high, green or yellowish green above, brown below, in dense tufts. Stems simple or sparsely branched; central strand not well developed. Leaves strongly twisted and incurved when dry, erect-spreading when moist, 3–6 mm long, obovate-oblong to lingulate, slightly undulate, apex acute and mucronate; margins recurved from the middle to the base; costa stout, shortly excurrent; upper cells rounded or rounded-quadrate to subquadrate, 12–15 µm wide, densely papillose, obscure; basal cells oblong, 26–39 µm x 10–13 µm, with distinctly reddish thickened transverse walls, several rows of marginal cells linear, thin-walled. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves similar to upper stem leaves. Setae erect, yellowish or yellowish brown, 5–12 mm long, twisted above when dry; capsules cylindric, yellow or brown, 2–3 mm long, smooth or nearly so; peristome single, teeth short lanceolate, obtuse, pale yellowish, with sparse papillae above, brown, with dense papillae below; annuli undifferentiated; opercula with long straight beak. Calyptrae cylindric to narrowly cylindric, golden to golden brown, covering the whole capsules, smooth, with a basal fringe of triangular segments, with a long, curved or erect rostrum, 0.3–0.4 length of calyptra. Spores 32–35 µm in diameter, with numerous, radial plicae on the proximal surface, nearly smooth on the distal surface.
Chinese specimens examined: HEBEI: Dong-ling, L.-Q. Yu 33 (IFSBH); Mt. Bo-li-ping-zi, J.-M. Liu 415 (NY); Mt. Wu-ling, J.-X. Ji 42 (IFSBH). HEILONGJIANG: Mt. Mao-er, Skvolzof 286 (IFSBH); Wu-da-lian-chi, C. Gao 13268 (IFSBH). JILIN: Mt. Chang-bai, C. Gao 22257 (IFSBH, MO, NY). NEI MONGOL: Gen-he, P.-C. Chen & C. Gao 772 (IFSBH, PE); Man-gui, C. Gao 12888 (IFSBH); Mt. Da-xin-nan, F. Lin 189 (IFSBH); Ke-er-qin You-yi
Qian-qi, P-Y. Fu 2172 (IFSBH). QINGHAI: Xing-hai Co., F.-G. Lu 017 (IFSBH). SHAANXI: Kuan-tou-san, Giraldi 843 (H); Mt. Hua, M.-X. Zhang s.n. 13 V. 1961 (NY); W.-M. Zhu 79087 (IFSBH); Mt. Tai-bai, Z.-P. Wei 5041 (IFSBH). SICHUAN: A-ba Co., S. He 31015 (MO); Dao-cheng Co., S. He 31814 (MO); De-rong Co., X.-J. Li 81-2890 (HKAS); Hong-yuan Co., Redfearn 35152 (MO, NY, SMS); Ma-er-kang Co., X.-J. Li 1323 (HKAS), Redfearn 35109 (MO, NY, SMS); Mu-li Co., Handel-Mazzetti 7470 (H); Nan-ping Co., Redfearn 35363a (MO, SMS); Song-pan Co., Redfearn 35187 (MO, NY, SMS). TAIWAN: Tai-chung Co., C.-Y. Chiang 5135 (Herb. D. G. Horton). XINJIANG: He-jing Co., S. He 951173 (MO); Urumqi Co., C.-Y. Yang 10 (IFSBH). XIZANG: Cha-yu Co., S.-G. Wu 1091b (HKAS, IFSBH); Lang Co., M. Zang 1867 (HKAS); Long-zi Co., M. Zang 1102 (HKAS); Ri-dong Co., M. Zang 5838 (HKAS); Zhong-ba Co., M. Zang 1101 (HKAS). YUNNAN: Da-li Co., Redfearn, S. He & Y.-G. Su 861 (MO, NY, SMS); De-qin Co., X.-J. Li 81-2000 (HKAS); between Lan-chang-jiang and Nujiang, Handel-Mazzetti 1518 (H); Li-jiang Co., Mt. Yulung, Handel-Mazzetti 6717 (H); Yang-bi Co., Redfearn et al. 861 (MO); Zhong-dian Co., X.-J. Li 81-1045 (HKAS).
Habitat: on soil or thin soil over rocks, 1180 m to 4700 m; Distribution: China, Japan, Iran, Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Papua New Guinea.
Encalypta ciliata is a narrowly defined species in structural features, among which the most distinctive is the calyptra. It consists of a long, narrow, erect or slightly curved, well defined rostrum and a segmented fringe that is pendant from a distinct ridge at the base of the cylinder. In addition, the peristome of E. ciliata is well developed and composed of obtusely lanceolate teeth. The spores have radial plicae on the proximal surface and are nearly smooth on the distal surface.
There is some variation in the following features in the Chinese populations: 1) most plants are robust, about 2–3 cm high, but a few are only 0.5–1.0 cm high; 2) length of the seta varies from 5 mm to 12 mm; 3) most plants have leaves with a mucronate apex, as is typical of E. ciliata, but some are nearly muticous.
Illustrations: T. Cao, Horton & C. Gao 1992 (fig. 10, 1–11).