15. Dicranella subulata (Hedw.) Schimp., Coroll. Bryol. Eur. 13. 1856; Dicranum subulatum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 128. 1801.
Dicranella secunda Lindb., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 10: 244. 1872, nom. illeg. incl. spec. prior.
Plants rather small, 3–10(–15) mm high, yellowish green, in tufts. Stems erect, simple or branched, somewhat radiculose below. Leaves up to 2 mm long, loosely erect to falcate-secund, lanceolate, gradually to rather abruptly narrowed from a triangular to oblong-ovate base to a subulate to long setaceous acumen; margins plane, entire or sometimes finely serrulate at the apex; costa stout, short- to long-excurrent, occupying ca. 1/5 the leaf base width; upper cells linear-rectangular, 30–40 µm × 4–5 µm, lower cells broader and shorter. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves somewhat differentiated, up to 3 mm long, flexuose-spreading to squarrose, abruptly narrowed from an oblong-ovate, sheathing base to a long, subulate acumen. Setae straight, 8–13 mm long, reddish, becoming dark with age; capsules inclined to nodding, shortly cylindric, curved, asymmetric, not strumose, furrowed when dry; opercula slenderly long-rostrate, curved, ca. 1 mm long; annuli compound, deciduous; peristome teeth divided to the middle, vertically striate below, reddish. Spores 15–18 µm in diameter, finely papillose.
Chinese specimens examined: ANHUI: Huang Shan (Mt.), D.-K. Li 2478 (IFSBH, SHM). FUJIAN: Sanming City, D.-K. Li 1525, 1659 (SHM). HAINAN: Diaoluo Shan (Mt.), C. Gao 2775 (IFSBH); Bawangling (Mt.), C. Gao 3249 (IFSBH). JILIN: Chang-bai Co., C. Gao 7514 (IFSBH). SICHUAN: Omei Shan (Mt.), Y.-L. Zhou 4944 (IFSBH); Mu-li Co., C. Gao 20222 (IFSBH); Tian-quan Co., C. Gao 1836 (IFSBH). XIZANG: Jia-yu River, M. Zang 970 (IFSBH, KUN); Mo-tuo Co., Y.-G. Su 4461 (IFSBH, KUN). ZHEJIANG: Putuo Shan (Mt.), D.-K. Li 5715, 6954 (IFSBH, SHM); Sui-chang Co., Z.-L. Liu 12 (IFSBH, SHM).
Habitat: on wet soil near streams or sandy places at roadsides; Distribution: China, Japan, Europe, and North America.
Illustrations: C. Gao (ed.) 1994 (Pl. 53, figs. 1–8).