25. Dicranum setifolium Card., Bull. Herb. Boissier, sér. 2. 7: 714. 1907.
Kiaeria setifolia (Card.) Broth., Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2), 10: 203. 1924. Arctoa setifolia (Card.) Horikawa, Hikobia 1(2): 91. 1951.
Plants medium-sized to large, 5–8(–10) cm high, slender, yellowish green or blackish green, weakly shiny, in dense tufts. Stems erect, simple or branched, sparsely tomentose below. Leaves falcate-secund when dry, erect when moist, lanceolate, up to 8 mm × 0.8 mm, gradually to rather abruptly narrowed from an oblong-ovate base to a long, channeled, linear acumen; margins plane or slightly incurved, nearly entire throughout or only slightly serrulate at the extreme apex; costa slender to rather stout, occupying ca. 1/7 the leaf base width, excurrent, filling almost the entire subulate apex, ending in a short hairpoint, smooth at back above; upper cells rounded quadrate to short-rectangular or rhomboidal, longitudinally thick-walled, slightly porose; basal cells elongate, rectangular, strongly thick-walled and porose; alar cells rounded quadrate or hexagonal, often fragile, somewhat inflated, bistratose, thick-walled, brownish at the margins, hyaline within. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves with a high sheathing base, abruptly narrowed to a slender, subulate acumen. Setae single, straight, 1–2 cm long, yellowish green; capsules cylindric, ca. 2.5 mm × 0.8 mm, slightly curved, asymmetric, not furrowed when dry and empty; exothecial cells rectangular, incrassate; annuli none; peristome teeth linear-lanceolate, ca. 0.5 mm long, divided to far below the middle, sometimes nearly to the base, yellowish brown, faintly striolate nearly throughout, slightly papillose at the tips. Spores ca. 19 µm in diameter, minutely papillose.
Chinese specimens examined: JILIN: Chang-bai Co., C. Gao 7510 (ALTA, IFSBH), 7516 (IFSBH).
Habitat: on bases of trees or soil; Distribution: China and Japan.
Illustrations: Pl. 48, figs. 1–8.