17. Eremostachys Bunge in Ledeb., Icon. Pl. Nov. Fl. Ross. 2: 10, t. 122. 1830. and Ledeb., H. Alt. 2: 414. 1830; Benth. in DC., Prodr. 12: 547. 1848; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 793. 1879; Regel, Monograph. generis Eremostachys, in Acta Hort, Petrop. 9: 529. 571. 1884; Briquet in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 1, 4, 3A: 246. 1896; Mukerjee in Rec. Bot. Surv. Ind. 14, 1: 198. 1940; Popov, Tentamen monograph. generis Eremostachys, in Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou 19: 1-166. 1940; Knorring in Komarov, Fl. URSS 21: 1. 1954; Hege in Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 23: 157. 1968; Rech. f., Fl. Iran. 150: 256. 1982; Adylov, Kamelin & Machmedov, Notae de Lamiaceis 1, in Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 23: 110-114. 1986.
Perennial sturdy herbs usually with at least some stellate-dendroid hairs. Roots bearing tubers or not. Leaves simple and crenate-laciniate to bipinnatisect. Inflorescence showy; flowers in verticillasters, rarely in thyrsoid cymes. Bracts ovate-lanceolate to subulate, often connate at base. Calyx tubular-campanulate to tubular infundibuliform; teeth short, equal, ovate or triangular, truncate, winged or auriculate always terminating in short hard spines (in other species, not in our area, there is a broad membranous, obtusely lobed limb). Corolla yellow, white or pinkish, bilabiate; upper lip falcate, densely bearded at inner margins; lower lip 3-lobed; tube internally annulate or not, spreading. Stamens 4; filaments of upper pair of anthers pectinate-fimbriate at point of attachment; thecae 2-locular. Nutlets trigonous, truncate, apically always bearded.
About 80 species concentrated in Soviet Central Asia and Afghanistan. Very closely allied to Phlomis and differing from it more by a combination of characters than any particular one: generally, Eremostachys species have much divided leaves, yellow flowers and apically densely bearded nutlets whereas in Phlomis the leaves are undivided, the flowers are rose to violet to violet (in our area) and the nutlets are usually apically glabrous.
Recently Adylov et al. On Vvedensky, Conspect. Fl. As. Med. 9: 74: 74-113) have substantially re-arranged the generic placings of the Central Asiatic species previously placed in Eremostachys and Phlomis. They recognize 4 genera in the complex Eremostachys, Paraeremostachys Adylov, Kamelin & Machmedov, Phlomoides, Moench and Phlomis. By far the greatest number of species in the area are placed in Phlomoides: 67 in all, mostly new combinations chiefly from Eremostachys and some from Phlomis. Among the Pakistan species dealt with below as members of Eremostachys, one would be a Paraeremostachys and two Phlomoides.
Although C. Asia is certainly a very major centre for Eremostachys On the wide sense) and Soviet botanists have the great advantage of being able to study the plants in the field, I have not, for this account, accepted the Adylov et al. re-arrangement because I do not think the case for recognizing the 4 genera has been conclusively proven (though this does not imply that the traditional circumscription of Phlomis and Eremostachys is fully satisfactory). One nomenclatural point may, however, be noted. The original description of Paraeremostachys Adylov, Kamelin & Machmedov (Nov. Syst. Pl. Vasc. 23: 112. 1986) gives its type as P. phlomoides (Bunge) Adylov et al., the basionym being Phlomis phlomoides Bunge. However this basionym is the type of Eremostachys Bunge, thus technically rendering Paraeremostachys an illegitimate name.
A proper understanding of the Pakistan species is hampered by the inadequacy of herbarium material and accompanying field notes. The following treatment is provisional.