4. Populus euphratica Olivier, Voy. Emp. Ottoman. 3: 449. t. 45. 46. 1807; Hook.f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 5: 638. 1889; Boiss., Fl. Or. 4: 1194. 1879; Cooke, Fl. Bomb. Pres. 2: 663. 1907; Parker, For. Fl. Punj. ed. 3: 508. 1956; A. Neumann in Rech.f., Fl. Iran. 65: 4. 1969; R.R. Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. Kashm. 180. 1972; F. Zhenfu, Z. Shidong & A.K. Skvortsov l.c. 162.
Vern: Bhan, Bahan.
Tree up to 15 m tall; sucker formation common; bark greyish. Young branches yellowish brown, glabrous. Leaves leathery, glabrous, very variable in form and size; on young plants and on long shoots, linear to elongate-ovate, 3-12 x 0.5-4 cm, usually entire, petiole 7.5-15 mm long; on older trees and on short shoots ovate-rhombic, elliptic-orbicular or reniform, 2-5 x 3-7 cm or larger, shallowly dentate in upper part; petiole 1.2-5 cm long. Male catkin 2.5-5 cm long, lax. Male flowers: bract oblanceolate, incised; disc orbicular on a long slender stipe, flat, 8-cleft; stamens 8-12, anthers longer then filaments. Female catkin 5-8 cm long, lax. Female flower: disc membranous caducous, tubular with 8-12 linear segments; stigmas 2-3 ± crescent shaped, narrowed into a short style. Capsule 7.5-12 mm, smooth, glabrous or slightly pubescent when young, 2-3 valved. Pedicel 3.5-5 mm.
Fl. Per.: February.
Type: Described from Mesopotamia, Olivier.
Distribution: Pakistan (Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab) Kashmir; Afghanistan; Iran; Iraq; Kazakstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, China (Gansu, W Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Xinjiang), N. Africa, Spain.(F. Zhenfu, Z. Shidong & A. K. Skvortsov, l.c.).
The wood is used for fuel in Sindh. In Punjab, it is used for well curbs and for ternery. The leaves are lopped for feeding goats. In former Russia, the resin of the bark, under the name of `buriarmini' is considered to have medicinal properties. The plant produces root suckers in abundance. Reproduction by cutting and root suckers is, however, difficult.