2. Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Meth. 290. 1794; Hook.f., l.c. 55; D.A.Webb in Tutin et al., Fl. Europ. 1: 81. 1964; Kitamura, Pl. Afgh. & W. Pak. 43. 1964; Rech.f. & Schiman-Czeika, l.c. 83; R.R.Stewart, l.c. 202; Bhopal & Chaudhri in Pak. Syst. 1(2): 87. 1977; Grierson & D. G. Long, Fl. Bhutan 1(1): 171. 1983; Munshi & Javeid, Syst. Stud. Polygon. Kashm. Himal. 83. 1986. (Fig. 17, A-D).
English: Common Buck- wheat
Polygonum fagopyrum L., Sp. Pl. 364. 1753; Fagopyrum sagittatum Gilib, Exerc. Phyt. 2: 435. 1792 - nom. illegit.; Polygonum emarginatum Roth, Catalect. B. 1: 48. 1797; Fagopyrum vulgare T. Nees, Gen. Pl. Fl. Germ. Monochlam. 53. 1835.
Annual, up to 1 m tall herb, glabrous or young parts rarely minutely papillose. Stem ribbed, reddish. Leaves petiolate, petiole 0.5-2 cm long, grooved lower leaves with long petiole, upper ones subsessile; lamina triangular or sagittate, cordate, basal lobes rounded to acuminate, 1.5-10 x 1-8 cm. Ochrea 2-3 (-5) mm long, hyaline, pubescent near the base. Inflorescence axillary and terminal, pedunculate, many-flowerd corymbose cyme. Flowers pink or red, pedicelled, c. 1 mm across. Perianth segments 5-partite, ovate or oblong-ovate c. 3 x 2 mm broad. Stames 8, unequal, alternating with glands, c. 1.5 mm long. Ovary 3-angled; styles 3, as long as ovary. Nuts deeply 3-angled, angles acute, brown, smooth, narrowed at both the ends, 4-8 x 2.5-5 mm broad.
Fl. Per.: June-August.
Type: Habitat in Asia, Herb. Linn. 510.37 (LINN).
This common buckwheat is widely cultivated in Pakistan and elsewhere; particularly in the higher inner valleys of Himalayas, Karakorum and Hindukush, above 1800 m. The flour is used for making breads. The young leaves are also used as vegetable. Also used as green fodder and a good honey plant; Distribution: Southern Europe, Central Asia, India, Iran and Pakistan.