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Pakistan | Family List | Violaceae | Viola

1. Viola odorata L., Sp. Pl. 934. 1753. Hook. f. & Thorns. in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1:184. 1872; Juzepchuk in Schischk. & Bobr., Fl. URSS. 15:363. 1949; Coode & Cull. in Davis, Fl. Turk. 1:525. 1965; Stewart, Ann. Cat. Vasc. Pl. W. Pak. & Kashm. 492. 1972.

Vern.: Banafsha.


  • Viola wiedemannii Boiss.

    Prostrate, acauline annual to perennial herb with erect scapes. Rhizome long, pointed, branched, slender, giving rise to a stoloniferous stern. Leaves 2.0-3.5 x 1.5-3.0 cm, broadly ovate, obtuse, hairy, cordate, serrate, 5-7-veined, sinus deep, petiole covered with deflexed hairs, often twice or thrice the length of lamina, upto 15 cm long; stipules free, broad lanceolate to ovate, acuminte, fringed or fimbriate. Flowers odorous, violet, upto 2.0 cm long on upto 20 cm long peduncle. Sepals 4.0-7.0 x 1.0-3.0 mm, ovate, obtuse, entire, cuneate. Petals obovate-oblong, obtuse, entire, up to 12 mm long, c. 5.0 mm broad; lateral petal 11-16 x 7.0 mm, large, oblong, obtuse, entire, spur straight or subcurvate, obtuse, c. 4 mm long. Ovary globose, 2.5-3.0 x 1.0-2.0 mm, glabrous, style 3.0-4.0 x 0.5-1 mm, laterally compressed, stigma beaked, beak directed forward. Capsule globose, 3-6-angled.

    Fl. Per.: March-July.

    Type: Habitat in Europae nemoribus, Herb. Linn. 1052. 11 (LINN).

    Distribution: Pakistan, India, Iran Afghanistan, Iraq, Mediterranean region and Caucasia.

    Frequently cultivated in gardens, up to 1900 m; occasionally found as an escape.


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